S-3ASR
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 1, 2021

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   04-3508648
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

Four Tower Bridge

200 Barr Harbor Drive, Suite 200

West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428

(Address, including zip code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

(267) 824-2827

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

 

 

Brian J. Lynch

Senior Vice President and General Counsel

Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Four Tower Bridge

200 Barr Harbor Drive, Suite 200

West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428

(267) 824-2827

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

With copies to:

Alan L. Dye

G. Allen Hicks

Hogan Lovells US LLP

555 Thirteenth Street, NW

Washington, DC 20004

(202) 637-5600

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

 

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities To Be Registered
  Amount
to be
Registered(1)(2)
  Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit(1)(2)
 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(1)(2)

  Amount of
Registration Fee(3)

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share(4)

       

Preferred Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

       

Warrants

       

Debt Securities

       

Units

       

Total(5)

       

 

 

(1)

An indeterminate number of or aggregate principal amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may at various times be issued at indeterminate prices.

(2)

An indeterminate number of or aggregate principal amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may at various times be issued at indeterminate prices.

(3)

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of the entire registration fee. Any registration fees will be paid subsequently on a “pay-as-you-go” basis in accordance with Rule 457(r).

(4)

In addition to any securities that may be registered hereunder, we are also registering an indeterminate number of shares of common stock as may be issued upon conversion or exercise of the securities issued directly hereunder. No separate consideration will be received for any shares of common stock so issued upon conversion or exercise

(5)

The securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in a combination with other securities registered hereby.

 

 

 


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PROSPECTUS

Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Warrants

Debt Securities

Units

 

 

From time to time, we may offer and sell, in one or more offerings, common stock, preferred stock, warrants, debt securities or units consisting of any combination of the other securities described in this prospectus. The preferred stock, warrants or debt securities may be convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock, preferred stock or other securities. We may offer any combination of the securities, in separate series or classes and in amounts, at prices and on terms described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. In addition, this prospectus may be used to offer securities for certain selling stockholders.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to the securities we and/or any selling stockholder may offer and sell and the general manner in which they may be offered. Each time we and/or any selling stockholder offer securities pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide one or more supplements to this prospectus or free writing prospectuses that contain specific information about the offering and the terms of any securities being sold. You should carefully read this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated in any of the foregoing by reference, before you invest in our securities. This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus may also add, update, supplement, change or clarify information contained in this prospectus.

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “MDGL.”

We or any selling stockholder may offer and sell our securities to or through one or more agents, underwriters, dealers or other third parties or directly to one or more purchasers on a continuous or delayed basis. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell our securities, we or any selling stockholder will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of our securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from the sale of such securities will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by selling stockholders.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES A HIGH DEGREE OF RISK. YOU SHOULD REVIEW CAREFULLY THE RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES REFERENCED UNDER THE HEADING “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 4 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AS WELL AS THOSE CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND ANY RELATED FREE WRITING PROSPECTUS, AND IN THE OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS OR THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is June 1, 2021.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     2  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

RISK FACTORS

     4  

ABOUT THE COMPANY

     4  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES TO BE OFFERED

     4  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     6  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     7  

LEGAL MATTERS

     9  

EXPERTS

     9  

We are responsible for the information contained and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, in any accompanying prospectus supplement, and in any related free writing prospectus we prepare or authorize. We have not authorized anyone to give you any other information, and we take no responsibility for any other information that others may give you. If you are in a jurisdiction where offers to sell, or solicitations of offers to purchase, the securities offered by this documentation are unlawful, or if you are a person to whom it is unlawful to direct these types of activities, then the offer presented in this document does not extend to you. The information contained in this document speaks only as of the date of this document, unless the information specifically indicates that another date applies. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospectus may have changed since those dates.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of an automatic shelf registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration process, we and/or selling stockholders may offer any security, or any combination of the securities, described in this prospectus from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we and/or selling stockholders may offer. Each time we and/or selling stockholders offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the specific terms of the offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement. Each such prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update, supplement, change or clarify information contained in this prospectus or in documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to carefully read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find Additional Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” before you invest in our securities.

Neither we nor any selling stockholder have authorized anyone to provide you with information in addition to or different from that contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurances as to the reliability of, any information not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we or a selling stockholder may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

Unless otherwise mentioned or unless the context requires otherwise, throughout this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, the words “Madrigal,” “we,” “us,” “our,” the “company” or similar references refer to Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its subsidiaries; and the term “securities” refers collectively to our common stock, preferred stock, warrants, debt securities, units consisting of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, and any combination of the foregoing.

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contains references to trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. Solely for convenience, trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this prospectus and the information incorporated herein, including logos, artwork, and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, service marks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, service marks or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. Certain information in the registration statement has been omitted from this prospectus in accordance with the rules of the SEC. We are subject to the information requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains these documents, which may be accessed through the SEC’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page (www.sec.gov).

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus supplement is continually updated, and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. You should review all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) until the completion of the offering of securities described in this prospectus:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on February  25, 2021, including the information specifically incorporated therein by reference from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, as filed with the SEC on April 30, 2021;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2021, as filed with the SEC on May 6, 2021;

 

   

our Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on May 18, 2021; and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on January 26, 2007, including any amendment thereto or report filed for the purpose of updating such descriptions, including but not limited to the description of our common stock contained in Exhibit 4.1 hereto and incorporated into this registration statement.

We do not, however, incorporate by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement any documents or portions thereof that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of our Current Reports on Form 8-K unless, and except to the extent, specified in such reports.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by contacting us, either orally or in writing, at:

Alex G. Howarth

Chief Financial Officer

Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Four Tower Bridge

200 Barr Harbor Drive, Suite 200

West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428

(267) 824-2827

 

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You may also access these documents, free of charge on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or on our website at www.madrigalpharma.com. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.

Neither we nor any selling stockholder have authorized anyone to provide you with information other than what is incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement.

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein contain statements that are not historical facts and are considered forward-looking within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to us, but are subject to factors beyond our control. Forward-looking statements reflect management’s current knowledge, assumptions, judgment and expectations regarding future performance or events; include all statements that are not historical facts; and can be identified by terms such as “allow,” “anticipates,” “be,” “believes,” “continue,” “could,” “demonstrates,” ”design,” “estimates,” “expects,” “forecasts,” “future,” “hopeful,” “goal,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” ”predictive,” “projects,” “seeks,” “should,” “will,” “will achieve,” “would” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms. We believe that it is important to communicate our future expectations to our investors. However, there may be events in the future that we are not able to accurately predict or control and that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations we describe in our forward-looking statements.

Investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on forward-looking statements because they relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

anticipated or estimated future results, including the risks and uncertainties associated with our future operating performance and financial position;

 

   

our possible or assumed future results of operations and expenses, business strategies and plans, capital needs and financing plans, market trends, competitive position, industry environment and potential growth opportunities;

 

   

our clinical trials, research and development activities, and the timing and results associated with the future development of our lead product candidate, MGL-3196 (resmetirom);

 

   

our primary and secondary study endpoints for resmetirom, the potential for achieving such endpoints and projections, including those regarding potential future non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (“NASH”) resolution, safety, fibrosis treatment, cardiovascular effects and lipid treatment with resmetirom;

 

   

optimal dosing levels for resmetirom and projections regarding potential NASH or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (“NAFLD”) patient benefits with resmetirom;

 

   

market demand for and acceptance of our products;

 

   

research, development and commercialization of new products;

 

   

obtaining and maintaining regulatory approvals, including, but not limited to, potential regulatory delays or rejections;

 

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risks associated with meeting the objectives of clinical studies, including, but not limited to our ability to achieve enrollment objectives concerning patient number (including an adequate safety database) and/or timing for our studies, any delays or failures in enrollment, the occurrence of adverse safety events, and the risks of successfully conducting trials that are substantially larger than our past trials;

 

   

risks related to our ability to accomplish our business development objectives and realize the anticipated benefit of any such transactions; and

 

   

assumptions underlying any of the foregoing.

Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which the statements were made and are not guarantees of future performance. Except as may be required by applicable law, we do not undertake or intend to update any forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus or the respective dates of documents incorporated by reference herein that include forward-looking statements.

RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including our most recent annual report on Form 10-K which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference, and other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

ABOUT THE COMPANY

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company pursuing novel therapeutics that target a specific thyroid hormone receptor pathway in the liver, which is a key regulatory mechanism common to a spectrum of cardio-metabolic and fatty liver diseases with high unmet medical need. Our lead candidate, resmetirom, is a first-in-class, orally administered, small-molecule, liver-directed, thyroid hormone receptor (THR)-ß selective agonist that is in currently in two Phase 3 clinical studies, MAESTRO-NASH and MAESTRO-NAFLD-1, designed to demonstrate multiple benefits across a broad spectrum of NASH and NAFLD patients.

We were incorporated in Delaware in September 2011. Our principal executive offices are located at 200 Barr Harbor Drive, Suite 200, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428 and our telephone number at that address is (267) 824-2827. We maintain a website at www.madrigalpharma.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus, and you should not rely on any such information in making the decision whether to purchase our securities.

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES TO BE OFFERED

We may offer shares of our common stock, preferred stock, warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt, or units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered from time to time

 

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in one or more offerings under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we and/or any selling stockholder may offer. Each time we and/or any selling stockholder offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities.

Common Stock. We and/or any selling stockholder may issue and/or sell, as applicable, shares of our common stock from time to time. Holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted on by stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. Subject to the preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding shares of preferred stock, the holders of our outstanding shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividend payments. The holders of our common stock have no preferences or rights of conversion, exchange, pre-emption or other subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Preferred Stock. We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each wholly unissued series, and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon, including dividend rights, voting rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the rights, preferences and privileges of the preferred stock of such series, as well as any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of that series of preferred stock. We will describe the specific terms of a particular series of preferred stock in the prospectus supplement related to that series. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, as well as the complete certificate of designation, for complete information on any applicable series of preferred stock.

Warrants. We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock and/or preferred stock in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock and/or preferred stock, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. We will describe the specific terms of any warrants we may offer in the prospectus supplement related to such warrants. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates, for complete information on the terms of the warrants. Forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue. Warrants may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

Debt Securities. We may issue debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and

 

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unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in this instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible or exchangeable debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable into our common stock or preferred stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific debt securities being offered, the price at which they will be offered and other key terms including, as applicable, maturity dates, interest rates, denominations, redemption, conversion, exchange, covenants and events of default. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities, for complete information on the series of debt securities being offered. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, the form of indenture and any supplemental agreements that describe the terms of the series of debt securities we are offering before the issuance of the related series of debt securities.

We may evidence each series of debt securities we will issue by an indenture that we enter into with a trustee. We will indicate the name and address of the trustee, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of debt securities being offered.

Units. We may issue, in one or more series, units consisting of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. We will describe the terms of the units we may offer in the prospectus supplement related to such units. The applicable prospectus supplement may describe the price or prices at which we will issue the units; the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately; any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, as well as the complete unit agreement that contains the terms of the units. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that describe the terms of the series of units we are offering before the issuance of the related series of units.

We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue. Units may be issued under a unit agreement that we enter into with a unit agent. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of units being offered.

USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as described in any prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, we intend to use the net proceeds received by us from the sale of the securities described in this prospectus for general corporate purposes. Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by any selling stockholder.

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

Selling stockholders are persons or entities that, directly or indirectly, have acquired or will from time to time acquire, our securities. Such selling stockholders may be parties to registration rights agreements with us, or we otherwise may have agreed or will agree to register their securities for resale. The initial purchasers of our securities, as well as their transferees, pledges, donees or successors, all of whom we refer to as “selling stockholders,” may from time to time offer and sell our securities pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the name of each of the selling stockholders and the number of securities beneficially owned by such selling stockholder that are covered by such prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also disclose whether any of the selling stockholders has held any position or office with, has been employed by or otherwise has had a material relationship with us during the three years prior to the date of the applicable prospectus supplement.

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We and/or any selling stockholder may sell our securities from time to time in one or more transactions. We and/or any selling stockholder may sell our securities to or through agents, underwriters, dealers, remarketing firms or other third parties or directly to one or more purchasers or through a combination of any of these methods of sale. In some cases, we and/or any selling stockholder or dealer acting with us and/or any selling stockholder or on behalf of us and/or any selling stockholder may also purchase our securities and reoffer them to the public. We and/or any selling stockholder may also offer and sell, or agree to deliver, our securities pursuant to, or in connection with, any option agreement or other contractual arrangement.

Agents whom we designate may solicit offers to purchase our securities.

We and/or any selling stockholder will name any agent involved in offering or selling our securities, and disclose any commissions that we will pay to the agent, in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless we and/or any selling stockholder indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, agents will act on a best efforts basis for the period of their appointment. Agents may be deemed to be underwriters under the Securities Act, of any of our securities that they offer or sell.

We and/or any selling stockholder may use an underwriter or underwriters in the offer or sale of our securities.

If we and/or any selling stockholder use an underwriter or underwriters, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter or underwriters at the time that we reach an agreement for the sale of our securities. We and/or any selling stockholder will include the names of the specific managing underwriter or underwriters, as well as the names of any other underwriters, and the terms of the transactions, including the compensation the underwriters and dealers will receive, in the applicable prospectus supplement. The underwriters will use the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the prospectus, to sell our securities. The underwriters may offer and sell our securities at a fixed price or prices which may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices, any of which may represent a discount from the prevailing market price.

We may also, from time to time, authorize a dealer or agents to sell our securities. If we and/or any selling stockholder use a dealer, we will sell our securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer will then sell our securities to the public at varying prices that the dealer will determine at the time it sells our securities. We and/or any selling stockholder will include the name of the dealer and the terms of the transactions with the dealer in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We and/or any selling stockholder may solicit directly offers to purchase our securities, and we may directly sell our securities to institutional or other investors. We and/or any selling stockholder will describe the terms of direct sales in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We and/or any selling stockholder may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act.

 

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We and/or any selling stockholder will indemnify agents, underwriters and dealers against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. The terms and conditions of any indemnification will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Agents, underwriters and dealers, or their affiliates, may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us or our affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

We and/or any selling stockholder may authorize agents and underwriters to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase our securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. If we and/or any selling stockholder use delayed delivery contracts, we will disclose that we are using them in the prospectus supplement and will tell you when we will demand payment and when delivery of our securities will be made under the delayed delivery contracts. These delayed delivery contracts will be subject only to the conditions that we describe in the prospectus supplement. We and/or any selling stockholder will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the commission that underwriters and agents soliciting purchases of our securities under delayed delivery contracts will be entitled to receive.

Unless otherwise specified in connection with a particular underwritten offering of our securities, the underwriters will not be obligated to purchase offered securities unless specified conditions are satisfied, and if the underwriters do purchase any offered securities, they will purchase all offered securities.

In connection with underwritten offerings of the offered securities and in accordance with applicable law and industry practice, the underwriters in certain circumstances are permitted to engage in certain transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of our securities, including the entry of stabilizing bids or syndicate covering transactions. If the underwriters create a short position in our securities in connection with the offering (i.e., if they sell more securities than are set forth on the cover page of the applicable prospectus supplement), the underwriters may reduce that short position by purchasing our securities in the open market or as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The underwriters may also impose a penalty bid, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. In general, purchases of a security for the purpose of stabilization or to reduce a short position could cause the price of the security to be higher than it might be in the absence of such purchases. The imposition of a penalty bid might also affect the price of our securities to the extent that it were to discourage resales of our securities. The underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Such purchasers in the foregoing scenarios will be subject to the applicable provisions of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, including Rule 10b-5 and Regulation M. Regulation M may restrict the ability of any person engaged in the distribution of the securities to engage in market-making activities with respect to those securities. In addition, the anti-manipulation rules under the Exchange Act may apply to sales of our securities in the market. This may affect the marketability of our securities and the ability of any person to engage in market-making activities with respect to our securities.

We and/or any selling stockholder may effect sales of securities in connection with forward sale, option or other types of agreements with third parties. Any distribution of securities pursuant to any forward sale agreement may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions that may take place through a stock exchange, including block trades or ordinary broker’s transactions, or through broker-dealers acting either as principal or agent, or through privately-negotiated transactions, or through an underwritten public offering, or through a combination of any such methods of ale, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices relating to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated or fixed prices.

The specific terms of the lock-up provisions, if any, in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8.0% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered by this prospectus.

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities being offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Hogan Lovells US LLP, Washington, DC.

EXPERTS

The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities registered hereby. The registrant is deferring payment of the registration fee in reliance on Rule 456(b) and Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act. All the amounts shown are estimates.

 

     Amount
to be
Paid
 

SEC registration fee

   $               (1) 

NASDAQ listing fee

                  (2) 

Accounting fees and expenses

                  (2) 

Legal fees and expenses

                  (2) 

Trustee and Transfer Agent fees and expenses

                  (2) 

Printing fees

                  (2) 

Miscellaneous

                  (2) 
  

 

 

 

Total

   $               (2) 
  

 

 

 

 

(1)

Omitted because the registration fee is being deferred pursuant to Rule 456(b) and Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act.

(2)

These fees and expenses are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances, and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time and will be reflected in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Our restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and restated bylaws provide that each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is otherwise involved (including, without limitation, as a witness) in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or an officer of our company or is or was serving at our request as a director, officer, or trustee of another corporation, or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan, whether the basis of such proceeding is alleged action in an official capacity as a director, officer or trustee or in any other capacity while serving as a director, officer or trustee, shall be indemnified and held harmless by us to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes or penalties and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such person in connection therewith.

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to indemnify any director or officer of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any action, suit or proceeding brought by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, if he or she had no reason to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In a derivative action, (i.e., one brought by or on behalf of the corporation), indemnification may be provided only for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by any director or officer in connection with the defense or settlement of such an action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, except that no

 

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indemnification shall be provided if such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the court in which the action or suit was brought shall determine that the defendant is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses despite such adjudication of liability.

Pursuant to Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, Article Ninth of our restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liabilities arising:

 

   

from any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

   

from acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law; and

 

   

from any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

We carry insurance policies insuring our directors and officers against certain liabilities that they may incur in their capacity as directors and officers. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers.

 

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Item 16. Exhibits.

 

Exhibit No.

    

Description

  1.1*        Form of Underwriting Agreement.
  4.1          Description of Securities of the Registrant.
  4.2          Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on March 31, 2017 (File No. 001-33277)).
  4.3          Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 21, 2017 (File No. 001-33277)).
  4.4          By-Laws of the Company, as amended April  13, 2016 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 14, 2016 (File No. 001-33277)).
  4.5          Specimen Common Stock Certificate.
  4.6*        Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designations of Preferred Stock.
  4.7*        Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
  4.8*        Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
  4.9*        Form of Unit Agreement.
  4.10        Form of Indenture.
  4.11*      Form of Debt Security.
    5.1          Opinion of Hogan Lovells US LLP.
  23.1          Consent of Hogan Lovells US LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
  23.2          Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.
  24.1          Power of Attorney (included on signature page).
  25.1*        Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

*

To be filed, if necessary, subsequent to the effectiveness of this registration statement by incorporation by reference pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K in connection with an offering of securities.

 

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Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in the volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the Commission, pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (A)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (B)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of the registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however , that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a

 

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  purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (6)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of the securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (7)

To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of West Conshohocken, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, on this first day of June, 2021.

 

Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
By:   /s/ Paul A. Friedman, M.D.
  Paul A. Friedman, M.D.
  Chief Executive Officer

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby severally constitutes and appoints Paul A. Friedman, M.D., Brian J. Lynch and Alex G. Howarth, and each of them singly, as such person’s true and lawful attorneys in fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for such person and in such person’s name, place, and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post effective amendments or any abbreviated or subsequent registration statement and any amendments thereto filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) and any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any abbreviated or subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b)), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys in fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys in fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Name

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Paul A. Friedman, M.D.

Paul A. Friedman, M.D.

  

Chief Executive Officer and

Chairman of the Board (Principal

Executive Officer)

  June 1, 2021

/s/ Alex G. Howarth

Alex G. Howarth

  

Chief Financial Officer (Principal

Financial and Accounting Officer)

  June 1, 2021

/s/ Kenneth M. Bate

Kenneth M. Bate

  

Director

  June 1, 2021

/s/ Fred B. Craves, Ph.D.

Fred B. Craves, Ph.D.

  

Director

  June 1, 2021

/s/ James M. Daly

James M. Daly

  

Director

  June 1, 2021

/s/ Keith R. Gollust

Keith R. Gollust

  

Director

  June 1, 2021

/s/ Richard S. Levy, M.D.

Richard S. Levy, M.D.

  

Director

  June 1, 2021

 

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Name

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ David Milligan, Ph.D.

David Milligan, Ph.D.

  

Director

  June 1, 2021

/s/ Rebecca Taub, M.D.

Rebecca Taub, M.D.

  

Chief Medical Officer, President,

Research & Development and

Director

  June 1, 2021

 

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EX-4.1

Exhibit 4.1

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OF THE REGISTRANT

The following is a summary of all material characteristics of our capital stock as set forth in our restated certificate of incorporation, our restated bylaws and our Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. Our common stock is the only class of our securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and is listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC. The summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, copies of which have been filed as exhibits to our previous SEC filings.

Description of Common Stock

We are authorized to issue 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share. The following summary of certain provisions of our common stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, both of which have been filed with the SEC. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

General

As of April 30, 2021, there were 16,584,625 shares of common stock outstanding. Holders of common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, and do not have cumulative voting rights. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividend payments. The holders of common stock have no preferences or rights of conversion, exchange, pre-emption or other subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs, holders of common stock will be entitled to share ratably in our assets that are remaining after payment or provision for payment of all of our debts and obligations and after liquidation payments to holders of outstanding shares of preferred stock, if any.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company N.A., whose address is Meidinger Tower, 462 South 4th Street, Louisville, KY 40202 and whose telephone number is (502) 301-6088.

Nasdaq Global Select Market

Our common stock is listed for quotation on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “MDGL.”

Dividends

We have never declared any cash dividends on our common stock and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.

Description of Preferred Stock

We are authorized to issue 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of March 31, 2021, we had 1,969,797 shares of preferred stock, designated Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, outstanding held by [two stockholders of record]. No other shares of our preferred stock were outstanding or designated. The following summary of certain provisions of our preferred stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation, our restated bylaws and our Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, each of which have been filed with the SEC. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.


General

Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

Each share of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is convertible into shares of the common stock at any time at the holder’s option at a one-to-one ratio, subject to adjustment. A holder of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, however, will be prohibited from converting shares of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock if, as a result of such conversion, the holder, together with its affiliates, would own more than 4.99% of the shares of our common stock or any other class of any equity security of ours (other than an exempted security) that is registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which may be increased or decreased to any other percentage at the holder’s election on 61 days’ notice delivered to the Company.

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, whether voluntary or involuntary, after the satisfaction in full of our debts and the payment of any liquidation preference owed to the holders of shares of our capital stock ranking prior to the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock upon liquidation, the holders of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock shall participate pari passu with the holders of our common stock (on an as-if-converted-to-common-stock basis) in our net assets. Shares of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will generally have no voting rights, except as required by law. Shares of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive dividends before shares of any other class or series of our capital stock (other than dividends in the form of our common stock) equal to the dividend payable on each share of our common stock, on an as-converted basis.

Anti-Takeover Provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

In addition to the board of directors’ ability to issue shares of preferred stock, our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws contain other provisions that are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of the board of directors and which may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a future takeover or change in control of our company unless such takeover or change in control is approved by our board of directors.

These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Classified board of directors; removal of directors for cause. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide for our board of directors to be divided into three classes serving staggered terms. At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms have expired are elected for a three-year term of office. All directors elected to our classified board of directors will serve until the election and qualification of their respective successors or their earlier resignation or removal. The board of directors is


authorized to create new directorships and to fill such positions so created and is permitted to specify the class to which any such new position is assigned. The person filling such position would serve for the term applicable to that class. The board of directors (or its remaining members, even if less than a quorum) also is empowered to fill vacancies on the board of directors occurring for any reason for the remainder of the term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred. Members of the board of directors may only be removed for cause and only by the affirmative vote of 80% of our outstanding voting stock. These provisions are likely to increase the time required for stockholders to change the composition of the board of directors. For example, in general, at least two annual meetings will be necessary for stockholders to effect a change in a majority of the members of the board of directors. The provision for a classified board could prevent a party who acquires control of a majority of our outstanding common stock from obtaining control of our board of directors until our second annual stockholders meeting following the date the acquirer obtains the controlling stock interest. The classified board provision could have the effect of discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us and could increase the likelihood that incumbent directors will retain their positions.

Advance notice provisions for stockholder proposals. Our restated bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors, as well as procedures for including proposed nominations at special meetings at which directors are to be elected. Stockholders at our annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board or by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has given to our secretary timely written notice, in proper form, of the stockholder’s intention to bring that business before the meeting, and who has complied with the procedures and requirements set forth in the bylaws. Although our bylaws do not give our board of directors the power to approve or disapprove stockholder nominations of candidates or proposals regarding other business to be conducted at a special or annual meeting, our bylaws may have the effect of precluding the conduct of some business at a meeting if the proper procedures are not followed or may discourage or defer a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

Special meetings of stockholders. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors. Stockholders are not permitted to call a special meeting or to require our board of directors to call a special meeting.

No stockholder action by written consent. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not permit our stockholders to act by written consent. As a result, any action to be effected by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of the stockholders.

Super-majority stockholder vote required for certain actions. The Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our restated certificate of incorporation requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 80% of our outstanding voting stock to amend or repeal certain provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation. This 80% stockholder vote would be in addition to any separate class vote that might in the future be required pursuant to the terms of any preferred stock that might then be outstanding. In addition, an 80% vote is also required for any amendment to, or repeal of, our restated bylaws by the stockholders. Our restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by a vote of a majority of the total number of authorized directors.

Provisions of Delaware Law Governing Business Combinations

We are subject to the “business combination” provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL. In general, such provisions prohibit a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in any “business combination” transactions with any “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date on which the person became an “interested stockholder,” unless:

 

   

prior to such date, the board of directors approved either the “business combination” or the transaction which resulted in the “interested stockholder” obtaining such status; or


   

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an “interested stockholder,” the “interested stockholder” owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the “interested stockholder”) those shares owned by (a) persons who are directors and also officers and (b) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to such time the “business combination” is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 662/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the “interested stockholder.”

A “business combination” is defined to include mergers, asset sales and other transactions resulting in financial benefit to a stockholder. In general, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock or within three years did own 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts with respect to us and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire us.

EX-4.5

Exhibit 4.5

 

LOGO

COMMON STOCK COMMON STOCK PO PAR VALUE $0.0001 MR ADD ADD ADD ADD 432 1 A BOX DESIGNATION SAMPLE Certificate Shares 43004, * * 000000 ****************** (IF Number * * * 000000 ***************** ANY) ZQ00000000 **** 000000 **************** Providence, MADRIGAL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. ***** 000000 *************** RI ****** 000000 ************** INCORPORATED UNDER THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF DELAWARE ** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample SEE REVERSE FOR CERTAIN DEFINITIONS 02940 **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David - THIS CERTIFIES THAT Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. MR. SAMPLE & MRS. SAMPLE & 3004 Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** CUSIP 558868 10 5 Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David 22 Sample **** Mr. Alexander MR David Sample . SAMPLE **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** &Mr . Alexander MRS David Sample . SAMPLE **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Alexander David Sample **** Mr. Sample **** Mr. Sample Page is the owner of **000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares*** *000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares**** 000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****0 THIS CERTIFICATE IS TRANSFERABLE IN 00000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000** Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****00 ***ZERO HUNDRED THOUSAND 0000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000 CITIES DESIGNATED BY THE TRANSFER 000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****0000 AGENT, AVAILABLE ONLINE AT 00**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****00000 0**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000 ZERO HUNDRED AND ZERO*** www.computershare.com **Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000* *Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000** Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**Shares****000000**S FULLY PAID AND NON-ASSESSABLE SHARES OF COMMON STOCK, PAR VALUE $0.0001 PER SHARE, OF 21:24 Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc. transferable on the books of the Corporation by the holder hereof in person or Total DTC by duly authorized attorney upon surrender of this certificate properly endorsed. This certificate is not valid unless Holder CUSIP countersigned and registered by the Transfer Agent and Registrar. Number Certificate of Insurance ID 27May21 Value WITNESS the facsimile seal of the Corporation and the facsimile signatures of its duly authorized officers. Transaction 1234567890/1234567890 1234567890/1234567890 1234567890/1234567890 1234567890/1234567890 1234567890/1234567890 1234567890/1234567890 Numbers Shares DATED DD-MMM-YYYY RMAC A E 6 5 4 3 2 1 PH UTI COUNTERSIGNED AND REGISTERED: 003 12345678 L C - Num/No G A AL COMPUTERSHARE TRUST COMPANY, N.A. . Chief Executive Officer I S TRANSFER AGENT AND REGISTRAR, R , D 2000 N I A C 6 5 4 3 2 1 M . DE E Denom LAWAR . XXXXXX 174184 1,000,000 _ 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . XX Total 123456789012345 123456 00 XXXXXXXXXX X By Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer AUTHORIZED SIGNATURE
/s/ Brian J lynch Senior vice president and general counsel
/s/ Paul A Friedman Chief Executive Officer


LOGO

THE CORPORATION WILL FURNISH WITHOUT CHARGE TO EACH STOCKHOLDER WHO SO REQUESTS A STATEMENT OF THE POWERS, DESIGNATIONS, PREFERENCES AND RELATIVE, PARTICIPATING, OPTIONAL, OR OTHER SPECIAL RIGHTS OF EACH CLASS OF STOCK OR SERIES THEREOF OF THE CORPORATION, AND THE QUALIFICATIONS, LIMITATIONS OR RESTRICTIONS OF SUCH PREFERENCES AND/OR RIGHTS. The following abbreviations, when used in the inscription on the face of this certificate, shall be construed as though they were written out in full according to applicable laws or regulations: TEN COM - as tenants in common UNIF GIFT MIN ACT- Custodian (Cust) (Minor) TEN ENT - as tenants by the entireties under Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (State) JT TEN - as joint tenants with right of survivorship UNIF TRF MIN ACT Custodian (until age. ) and not as tenants in common (Cust) (Minor) under Uniform Transfers to Minors Act. (State) Additional abbreviations may also be used though not in the above list. For value received, hereby sell, assign and transfer unto (PLEASE PRINT OR TYPEWRITE NAME AND ADDRESS, INCLUDING POSTAL ZIP CODE, OF ASSIGNEE) of the capital stock represented by the within Certificate, and do hereby irrevocably constitute and appoint to transfer the said stock on the books of the within named Corporation with full power of substitution in the premises. Dated: 20 Signature: Signature: Notice: The signature to this assignment must correspond with the name as written upon the face of the certificate, in every particular, without alteration or enlargement, or any change whatever. PLEASE INSERT SOCIAL SECURITY OR OTHER IDENTIFYING NUMBER OF ASSIGNEE Shares Attorney Signature(s) Guaranteed: Medallion Guarantee Stamp THE SIGNATURE(S) SHOULD BE GUARANTEED BY AN ELIGIBLE GUARANTOR INSTITUTION (Banks, Stockbrokers, Savings and Loan Associations and Credit Unions) WITH MEMBERSHIP IN AN APPROVED SIGNATURE GUARANTEE MEDALLION PROGRAM, PURSUANT TO S.E.C. RULE 17Ad-15. The IRS requires that we report the cost basis of certain shares acquired after January 1, 2011. If your shares were covered by the legislation and you have sold or transferred the shares and requested a specific cost basis calculation method, we have processed as requested. If you did not specify a cost basis calculation method, we have defaulted to the first in, first out (FIFO) method. Please visit our website or consult your tax advisor if you need additional information about cost basis. If you do not keep in contact with us or do not have any activity in your account for the time periods specified by state law, your property could become subject to state unclaimed property laws and transferred to the appropriate state.

EX-4.10

Exhibit 4.10

INDENTURE

DATED AS OF                 , 20

BETWEEN

MADRIGAL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

as Issuer,

AND

as Trustee

 

 

Providing for Issuance of

Debt Securities

in Series

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         Page  

ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

     1  

Section 1.01

 

Definitions.

     1  

Section 1.02

 

Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

     6  

Section 1.03

 

Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee.

     6  

Section 1.04

 

Acts of Holders; Record Dates.

     7  

Section 1.05

 

Notices, Etc., to Trustee and Company.

     8  

Section 1.06

 

Notice to Holders; Waiver.

     8  

Section 1.07

 

Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

     9  

Section 1.08

 

Effect of Headings and Table of Contents.

     9  

Section 1.09

 

Successors and Assigns.

     9  

Section 1.10

 

Separability Clause.

     9  

Section 1.11

 

Benefits of Indenture.

     9  

Section 1.12

 

Governing Law.

     10  

Section 1.13

 

Legal Holidays.

     10  

Section 1.14

 

Incorporators, Equityholders, Directors, Members, Managers, Officers and Employees of the Company Exempt from Individual Liability.

     10  

Section 1.15

 

WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL.

     10  

ARTICLE II. SECURITY FORM

     10  

Section 2.01

 

Forms Generally.

     10  

Section 2.02

 

Form of Legend for Global Securities.

     11  

Section 2.03

 

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.

     12  

ARTICLE III. THE SECURITIES

     12  

Section 3.01

 

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.

     12  

Section 3.02

 

Denominations.

     15  

Section 3.03

 

Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating.

     15  

Section 3.04

 

Temporary Securities.

     16  

Section 3.05

 

Registration; Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

     17  

Section 3.06

 

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

     18  

Section 3.07

 

Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved.

     19  

Section 3.08

 

Persons Deemed Owners.

     20  

Section 3.09

 

Cancellation.

     20  

Section 3.10

 

Computation of Interest.

     20  

Section 3.11

 

CUSIP Numbers

     20  

Section 3.12

 

Original Issue Discount

     21  

ARTICLE IV. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

     21  

Section 4.01

 

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

     21  

Section 4.02

 

Application of Trust Money.

     22  

ARTICLE V. REMEDIES

     22  

Section 5.01

 

Events of Default.

     22  

Section 5.02

 

Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

     23  

Section 5.03

 

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

     24  

Section 5.04

 

Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

     24  

 

i


Section 5.05

 

Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

     25  

Section 5.06

 

Application of Money Collected.

     25  

Section 5.07

 

Limitation on Suits.

     25  

Section 5.08

 

Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal Premium and Interest and to Convert Securities.

     26  

Section 5.09

 

Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

     26  

Section 5.10

 

Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

     26  

Section 5.11

 

Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

     26  

Section 5.12

 

Control by Holders.

     26  

Section 5.13

 

Waiver of Past Defaults.

     27  

Section 5.14

 

Undertaking for Costs.

     27  

Section 5.15

 

Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws.

     27  

ARTICLE VI. THE TRUSTEE

     27  

Section 6.01

 

Certain Duties and Responsibilities.

     27  

Section 6.02

 

Notice of Defaults.

     28  

Section 6.03

 

Certain Rights of Trustee.

     28  

Section 6.04

 

Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.

     29  

Section 6.05

 

May Hold Securities.

     30  

Section 6.06

 

Money Held in Trust.

     30  

Section 6.07

 

Compensation and Reimbursement.

     30  

Section 6.08

 

Conflicting Interests.

     30  

Section 6.09

 

Corporate Trustee Required, Eligibility.

     31  

Section 6.10

 

Resignation and Removal, Appointment of Successor.

     31  

Section 6.11

 

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor.

     32  

Section 6.12

 

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

     33  

Section 6.13

 

Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

     33  

Section 6.14

 

Appointment of Authenticating Agent.

     33  

ARTICLE VII. HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY

     34  

Section 7.01

 

Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders.

     34  

Section 7.02

 

Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders.

     34  

Section 7.03

 

Reports by Trustee.

     35  

Section 7.04

 

Reports by Company.

     35  

ARTICLE VIII. CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE

     35  

Section 8.01

 

Company May Consolidate, Etc., Only on Certain Terms.

     35  

Section 8.02

 

Successor Substituted.

     36  

ARTICLE IX. SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     36  

Section 9.01

 

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders.

     36  

Section 9.02

 

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Holders.

     37  

Section 9.03

 

Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

     38  

Section 9.04

 

Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

     38  

Section 9.05

 

Conformity with Trust Indenture Act.

     38  

Section 9.06

 

Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures.

     38  

ARTICLE X. COVENANTS

     39  

Section 10.01

 

Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

     39  

Section 10.02

 

Maintenance of Office or Agency.

     39  

 

ii


Section 10.03

 

Money for Securities Payments to Be Held in Trust.

     39  

Section 10.04

 

Statement by Officers as to Default.

     40  

Section 10.05

 

Existence.

     40  

Section 10.06

 

Waiver of Certain Covenants.

     40  

ARTICLE XI. REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES

     41  

Section 11.01

 

Applicability of Article.

     41  

Section 11.02

 

Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee.

     41  

Section 11.03

 

Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed.

     41  

Section 11.04

 

Notice of Redemption.

     42  

Section 11.05

 

Deposit of Redemption Price.

     42  

Section 11.06

 

Securities Payable on Redemption Date.

     43  

Section 11.07

 

Securities Redeemed in Part.

     43  

ARTICLE XII. SINKING FUNDS

     43  

Section 12.01

 

Applicability of Article.

     43  

Section 12.02

 

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

     43  

ARTICLE XIII. DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

     44  

Section 13.01

 

Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

     44  

Section 13.02

 

Defeasance and Discharge.

     44  

Section 13.03

 

Covenant Defeasance.

     44  

Section 13.04

 

Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

     45  

Section 13.05

 

Deposited Money and U.S. Government Obligations to Be Held in Trust; Miscellaneous Provisions.

     46  

Section 13.06

 

Reinstatement.

     46  

Note: This table of contents shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

 

iii


MADRIGAL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Certain Sections of this Indenture relating to Sections 310 - 318, inclusive,

of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended

 

Trust Indenture Act Section

   Indenture
        Section        
 

310(a)(1)

     6.09  

(a)(2)

     6.09  

(a)(3)

     N.A.  

(a)(4)

     N.A.  

(a)(5)

     6.09  

(b)

     6.08, 6.10  

(c)

     N.A.  

311(a)

     6.13  

(b)

     6.13  

(c)

     N.A.  

312(a)

     7.01, 7.02  

(b)

     7.02  

(c)

     7.02  

313(a)

     7.03  

(b)(1)

     N.A.  

(b)(2)

     7.03  

(c)

     7.03  

(d)

     7.03  

314(a)

     7.04  

(a)(4)

     1.04, 10.04  

(b)

     N.A.  

(c)(1)

     1.02  

(c)(2)

     1.02  

(c)(3)

     N.A.  

(d)

     N.A.  

(e)

     1.02  

(f)

     N.A.  

315(a)

     6.01  

(b)

     6.02  

(c)

     6.01  

(d)

     6.01  

(e)

     5.14  

316(a)(last sentence)

     1.06  

(a)(1)(A)

     5.02, 5.12  

(a)(1)(B)

     5.13  

(a)(2)

     N.A.  

(b)

     5.08  

 

iv


Trust Indenture Act Section

   Indenture
        Section        
 

(c)

     1.04  

317(a)(1)

     5.03  

(a)(2)

     5.04  

(b)

     10.03  

318(a)

     1.07  

(b)

     N.A.  

(c)

     1.07  

 

*

N.A. means inapplicable.

    

NOTE: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

v


INDENTURE

THIS INDENTURE, dated as of                , 20    , between MADRIGAL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware (herein called the “Company”), and                , as trustee (herein called the “Trustee”).

RECITALS

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of the Company’s debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness (herein called the “Securities”), to be issued in one or more series as provided in this Indenture.

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of any series thereof, as follows:

ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

Section 1.01 Definitions.

For all purposes of this Indenture, except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) the terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular and the masculine gender shall include the feminine and neuter, and vice versa, unless the context otherwise requires;

(b) all other terms used herein which are defined in the Trust Indenture Act, either directly or by reference therein, have the meanings assigned to them therein;

(c) all accounting terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (including, if applicable, International Financial Reporting Standards) as in effect from time to time;

(d) unless the context otherwise requires, any reference to an Article” or a “Section refers to an Article or a Section, as the case may be, of this Indenture;

(e) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision;

(f) “or” is not exclusive, and “including” means “including without limitation”, “including but not limited to” or words of similar import;

(g) when used with respect to any Security, the words “convert,” “converted” and “conversion” are intended to refer to the right of the Holder or the Company to convert or exchange such Security into or for securities or other property in accordance with such terms, if any, as may hereafter be specified for such Security as contemplated by Section 3.01, and these words are not intended to refer to any right of the Holder or the Company to exchange such Security for other Securities of the same series and like tenor pursuant to Section 3.04, Section 3.05, Section 3.06, Section 9.06 or Section 11.07 or another similar provisions of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires; and references herein to the terms of any Security that may be converted mean such terms as may be specified for such Security as contemplated in Section 3.01; and

 

1


(h) unless otherwise provided, references to agreements and other instruments shall be deemed to include all amendments and other modifications to such agreements and instruments, but only to the extent such amendments and other modifications are not prohibited by the terms of this Indenture.

Act, when used with respect to any Holder, has the meaning specified in Section 1.04.

Affiliate of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

Applicable Procedures of a Depositary means, with respect to any matter at any time, the policies and procedures of such Depositary, if any, that are applicable to such matter at such time.

Authenticating Agent means any Person authorized by the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.14 to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of one or more series.

Board of Directors means either the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of that board of directors.

Board Resolution means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day, when used with respect to any Place of Payment, means, except as otherwise provided or contemplated by Section 3.01 with respect to any series of Securities, each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday which is not a day on which banking institutions in that Place of Payment are authorized or obligated by law or executive order or regulation to close.

Commission means the Securities and Exchange Commission, from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company means the Person named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor Person shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor Person.

Company Request or Company Order means a written request or order signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, its Chief Financial Officer, its Chief Operating Officer or a Vice President, and by its Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, its Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company, or any other officer or officers of the Company designated in writing by or pursuant to authority of the Board of Directors, and delivered to the Trustee.

Corporate Trust Office means the principal office of the Trustee (currently at                      ) at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be administered, or at any other time at such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders.

corporation means a corporation, association, limited liability company, company, joint-stock company or business trust.

 

2


Covenant Defeasance has the meaning specified in Section 13.03.

Defaulted Interest has the meaning specified in Section 3.07.

Defeasance has the meaning specified in Section 13.02.

Depositary means, with respect to Securities of any series issuable in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act that is designated to act as Depositary for such Securities as contemplated by Section 3.01.

Event of Default has the meaning specified in Section 5.01.

Exchange Act means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

Expiration Date has the meaning specified in Section 1.04.

Global Security means a Security that evidences all or part of the Securities of any series and bears the legend set forth in Section 2.04 (or such legend as may be specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for such Securities).

Holder means a Person in whose name a Security is registered in the Security Register.

Indenture means this instrument as originally executed and as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof, including, for all purposes of this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are deemed to be a part of and govern this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, respectively. The term “Indenture” shall also include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 3.01.

interest, when used with respect to an Original Issue Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

Interest Payment Date, when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

Internal Revenue Code” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time.

mandatory sinking fund payment has the meaning specified in Section 12.01.

Maturity, when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security or an installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

Notice of Default means a written notice of the kind specified in Section 5.01(d).

Officer’s Certificate means a certificate signed by the Chief Executive Officer, President, Chief Financial Officer, Operating Legal Officer, a Vice President, the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company or any other officer or officers of the Company designated in writing by or pursuant to authority of the Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee.

Opinion of Counsel means a written opinion of counsel, who may be an employee of, or outside counsel to, but does not have to be counsel for, the Company, and who shall be acceptable to the Trustee, which acceptance shall not be unreasonably withheld. Opinions of Counsel required to be delivered under this Indenture may have qualifications customary for opinions of the type required.

 

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optional sinking fund payment has the meaning specified in Section 12.01.

Original Issue Discount Security means any Security which provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.02.

Outstanding, when used with respect to Securities, means, as of the date of determination, all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except:

(1) Securities theretofore cancelled and delivered to the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

(2) Securities for whose payment or redemption money in the necessary amount has been theretofore deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent (other than the Company) in trust or set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent) for the Holders of such Securities; provided that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor has been made;

(3) Securities, except to the extent provided in Sections 13.02 and 13.03 respectively, as to which the Company has effected Defeasance pursuant to Section 13.02 or Covenant Defeasance pursuant to Section 13.03;

(4) Securities which have been paid pursuant to Section 3.06 or in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, other than any such Securities in respect of which there shall have been presented to the Trustee proof satisfactory to it that such Securities are held by a bona fide purchaser in whose hands such Securities are valid obligations of the Company; and

(5) Securities as to which any property deliverable upon conversion thereof has been delivered (or such delivery has been made available), or as to which any other particular conditions have been satisfied, in each case as may be provided for such Securities as contemplated in Section 3.01;

provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given, made or taken any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action hereunder as of any date, (A) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof which would be due and payable as of such date upon acceleration of the Maturity thereof to such date pursuant to Section 5.02, (B) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Security is not determinable, the principal amount of such Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount as specified or determined as contemplated by Section 3.01, (C) the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more foreign currencies, composite currencies or currency units which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner provided as contemplated by Section 3.01, of the principal amount of such Security (or, in the case of a Security described in Clause (A) or (B) above, of the amount determined as provided in such Clause), and (D) Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, only Securities which the Trustee knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded. The Trustee shall be protected in relying on an Officer’s Certificate or other evidence satisfactory to it in determining ownership. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

“Paying Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to pay the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities on behalf of the Company.

 

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Person means any individual, corporation, company (including a limited liability company), partnership, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof or any other entity.

Place of Payment, when used with respect to the Securities of any series, means the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on the Securities that series are payable as specified or contemplated by Section 3.01.

Predecessor Security of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 3.06 in exchange for or in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

Redemption Date, when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture.

Redemption Price, when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the price at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

Regular Record Date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date on the Securities of any series means the date specified for that purpose as contemplated by Section 3.01.

Responsible Officer, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman or any vice-chairman of the board of directors, the chairman or any vice-chairman of the executive committee of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the president, any Vice President, the secretary, any assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, the cashier, any assistant cashier, any trust officer or assistant trust officer, the controller or any assistant controller or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

Securities has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Securities Act means the Securities Act of 1933 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

Security Register and Security Registrar have the respective meanings specified in Section 3.05.

Special Record Date for the payment of any Defaulted Interest means a date fixed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.07.

Stated Maturity, when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

Subsidiary means any Person a majority of the combined voting power of the total outstanding ownership interests in which is, at the time of determination, beneficially owned or held, directly or indirectly, by the Company or one or more other Subsidiaries. For this purpose, “voting power” means power to vote in an ordinary election of directors (or, in the case of a Person that is not a corporation, ordinarily to appoint or approve the appointment of Persons holding similar positions), whether at all times or only as long as no senior class of ownership interests has such voting power by reason of any contingency.

Trust Indenture Act means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was executed, except as otherwise provided in Section 9.05; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “Trust Indenture Act” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as so amended.

 

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Trustee means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

U.S. Government Obligation has the meaning specified in Section 13.04.

Vice President, when used with respect to the Company or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title “vice president”.

Section 1.02 Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

Upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take or refrain from taking any action under any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee such certificates and opinions as may be required under the Trust Indenture Act; provided, however, that no opinion shall be required in connection with the issuance of Securities that are part of any series as to which such an opinion has been furnished. Each such certificate and opinion shall be given in the form of an Officer’s Certificate, if to be given by an officer of the Company and an Opinion of Counsel, if to be given by counsel, and shall comply with the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act and any other requirements set forth in this Indenture.

Every certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (except for certificates provided in Section 10.04) shall include:

(a) a statement that each individual signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;

(b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(c) a statement that, in the opinion of each such individual, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(d) a statement as to whether, in the opinion of each such individual, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 1.03 Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee.

In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons as to other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or several documents.

Any certificate or opinion of an officer of the Company may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his certificate or opinion is based are erroneous. Any such certificate or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company stating that the information with respect to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company, unless such counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous. Counsel delivering an Opinion of Counsel may also rely as to factual matters on certificates of governmental or other officials customary for opinions of the type required.

 

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Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

Section 1.04 Acts of Holders; Record Dates.

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided or permitted by this Indenture to be given, made or taken by Holders may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Holders in person or by an agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company. Such instrument or instruments (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the Act of the Holders signing such instrument or instruments. Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Section 6.01) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section.

Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, a Holder, including a Depositary that is a Holder of a Global Security, may make, give or take, by a proxy or proxies, duly appointed in writing, any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided in this Indenture to be made, given or taken by Holders, and a Depositary that is a Holder of a Global Security may provide its proxy or proxies to the beneficial owners of interests in any such Global Security.

The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved by the affidavit of a witness of such execution or by a certificate of a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments of deeds, certifying that the individual signing such instrument or writing acknowledged to him the execution thereof. Where such execution is by a signer acting in a capacity other than his individual capacity, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of his authority. The fact and date of the execution of any such instrument or writing, or the authority of the Person executing the same, may also be proved in any other manner which the Trustee deems sufficient.

The ownership, principal amount and serial numbers of Securities held by any Person, and the date of commencement of such Person’s holding the same, shall be proved by the Security Register.

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act of the Holder of any Security shall bind every future Holder of the same Security and the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof in respect of anything done, omitted or suffered to be done by the Trustee or the Company in reliance thereon, whether or not notation of such action is made upon such Security.

The Company may set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders of Outstanding Securities of any series entitled to give, make or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided or permitted by this Indenture to be given, made or taken by Holders of Securities of such series, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so; provided that the Company may not set a record date for, and the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply with respect to, the giving or making of any notice, declaration, request or direction referred to in the next paragraph. If any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Holders of Outstanding Securities of the relevant series on such record date, and no other Holders, shall be entitled to take the relevant action, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date; provided that no such action shall be effective hereunder unless taken on or prior to the applicable Expiration Date by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of such series on such record date. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prevent the Company from setting a new record date for any action for which a record date has previously been set pursuant to this paragraph (whereupon the record date previously set shall automatically and with no action by any Person be cancelled and of no effect), and nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to render ineffective any action taken by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding

 

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Securities of the relevant series on the date such action is taken. Promptly after any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Company, at its own expense, shall cause notice of such record date, the proposed action by Holders and the applicable Expiration Date to be given to the Trustee in writing and to each Holder of Securities of the relevant series in the manner set forth in Section 1.05 or Section 1.06.

The Trustee may set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders of Outstanding Securities of any series entitled to join in the giving or making of (i) any Notice of Default, (ii) any declaration of acceleration referred to in Section 5.02, (iii) any request to institute proceedings referred to in Section 5.07(b) or (iv) any direction referred to in Section 5.12, in each case with respect to Securities of such series. If any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Holders of Outstanding Securities of such series on such record date, and no other Holders, shall be entitled to join in such notice, declaration, request or direction, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date; provided that no such action shall be effective hereunder unless taken on or prior to the applicable Expiration Date by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of such series on such record date. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prevent the Trustee from setting a new record date for any action for which a record date has previously been set pursuant to this paragraph (whereupon the record date previously set shall automatically and with no action by any Person be cancelled and of no effect), and nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to render ineffective any action taken by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of the relevant series on the date such action is taken. Promptly after any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Trustee, at the Company’s expense, shall cause notice of such record date, the proposed action by Holders and the applicable Expiration Date to be given to the Company in writing and to each Holder of Securities of the relevant series in the manner set forth in Section 1.05 or Section 1.06.

With respect to any record date set pursuant to this Section, the party hereto which sets such record date may designate any day as the Expiration Date and from time to time may change the Expiration Date to any earlier or later day; provided that no such change shall be effective unless notice of the proposed new Expiration Date is given to the other party hereto in writing, and to each Holder of Securities of the relevant series in the manner set forth in Section 1.06, on or prior to the then existing Expiration Date. If an Expiration Date is not designated with respect to any record date set pursuant to this Section, the party hereto which set such record date shall be deemed to have initially designated the 180th day following such record date as the Expiration Date with respect thereto, subject to its right to change the Expiration Date as provided in this paragraph. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no Expiration Date shall be later than the 180th day following the applicable record date.

Without limiting the foregoing, a Holder entitled hereunder to take any action hereunder with regard to any particular Security may do so with regard to all or any part of the principal amount of such Security or by one or more duly appointed agents each of which may do so pursuant to such appointment with regard to all or any part of such principal amount.

Section 1.05 Notices, Etc., to Trustee and Company.

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or Act of Holders or other document provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with,

(1) the Trustee by any Holder or by the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing (which may be by facsimile or electronic transmission) to or with the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office at the location specified in Section 1.01, or

(2) the Company by the Trustee or by any Holder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to the Company addressed to it at the address of the Company’s principal office specified in the first paragraph of this Indenture or at any other address previously furnished in writing to the Trustee by the Company.

Section 1.06 Notice to Holders; Waiver.

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of any event, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder

 

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affected by such event, at its address as it appears in the Security Register, not later than the latest date (if any), and not earlier than the earliest date (if any), prescribed for the giving of such notice. In any case where notice to Holders is given by mail, neither the failure to mail such notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed, to any particular Holder shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders. Any notice when mailed to a Holder in the aforesaid manner shall be conclusively deemed to have been received by such Holder whether or not actually received by such Holder. Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to give such notice by mail, then such notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient notification for every purpose hereunder.

Where this Indenture provides for notice of any event to a Holder of a Global Security, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee), pursuant to the Applicable Procedures of the Depositary, not later than the latest date, if any, and not earlier than the earliest date, if any, prescribed for the giving of such notice.

Section 1.07 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

This Indenture is subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are required to be a part of this Indenture and, to the extent applicable, shall be governed by such provisions. If any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with a provision of the Trust Indenture Act or with another provision hereof which is required under the Trust Indenture Act to be a part of and govern this Indenture, the latter provision shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the Trust Indenture Act which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or excluded, as the case may be.

Section 1.08 Effect of Headings and Table of Contents.

The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

Section 1.09 Successors and Assigns.

All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 1.10 Separability Clause.

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 1.11 Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and their successors hereunder and the Holders, any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture, except as may otherwise be expressly provided pursuant to Section 3.01 with respect to any specific Securities.

 

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Section 1.12 Governing Law.

This Indenture and the Securities shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Section 1.13 Legal Holidays.

In any case where any Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date or Stated Maturity of any Security, or any date on which a Holder has the right to convert such Holder’s Security, shall not be a Business Day at any Place of Payment, then (notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or of the Securities (other than a provision of any Security which specifically states that such provision shall apply in lieu of this Section)) payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any), or the Redemption Price or conversion of such Security, need not be made at such Place of Payment on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at such Place of Payment with the same force and effect as if made on the Interest Payment Date or Redemption Date, or at the Stated Maturity, or on such conversion date. No interest shall accrue for the period from and after any such Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, Stated Maturity or conversion date, as the case may be, to the date of such payment.

Section 1.14 Incorporators, Equityholders, Directors, Members, Managers, Officers and Employees of the Company Exempt from Individual Liability.

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture, or in any Security, or because of any indebtedness evidenced thereby, shall be had against any incorporator, as such, or against any past, present or future equityholder, director, member, manager, officer or employee, as such, of the Company or of any successor, either directly or through the Company or any successor, under any rule of law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise, all such liability being expressly waived and released by the acceptance of the Securities by the Holders thereof and as part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

Section 1.15 WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL.

EACH OF THE COMPANY, THE HOLDERS AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING AS BETWEEN THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE ONLY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES.

ARTICLE II. SECURITY FORM

Section 2.01 Forms Generally.

The Securities of each series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication shall be in substantially the forms set forth in this Article, or in such other form as shall be established by or pursuant to a Board Resolution and, subject to Section 3.03, to the extent established in an Officer’s Certificate or Company Order setting forth, or determining the manner of, such establishment, or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture, and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as may be required to comply with applicable laws or the rules of any securities exchange or automated quotation system on which the Securities of such series may be listed or traded or of any Depositary therefor or as may, consistently herewith, be determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution thereof. If the form of Securities of any series is established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Company Order contemplated by Section 3.03 for the authentication and delivery of such Securities. If all of the Securities of any series established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution are not to be issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver a record of such action at the time of issuance of each Security of such series, but an appropriate record of such action shall be delivered at or before the time of issuance of the first Security of such series.

 

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The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

Section 2.02 Form of Legend for Global Securities.

Unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for the Securities evidenced thereby or as required by Applicable Procedures, every Global Security authenticated and delivered hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

[Insert, if applicable — UNLESS THIS NOTE IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE ISSUER OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY CERTIFICATE ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.

TRANSFERS OF THIS GLOBAL SECURITY SHALL BE LIMITED TO TRANSFERS IN WHOLE, BUT NOT IN PART, TO NOMINEES OF DTC OR TO A SUCCESSOR THEREOF OR SUCH SUCCESSOR’S NOMINEE AND TRANSFERS OF PORTIONS OF THIS GLOBAL SECURITY SHALL BE LIMITED TO TRANSFERS MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RESTRICTIONS SET FORTH IN THE INDENTURE REFERRED TO ON THE REVERSE HEREOF.]

[Insert, if applicable — THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE THEREOF. THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR A SECURITY REGISTERED, AND NO TRANSFER OF THIS SECURITY IN WHOLE OR IN PART MAY BE REGISTERED, IN THE NAME OF ANY PERSON OTHER THAN SUCH DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE THEREOF, EXCEPT IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE. EVERY SECURITY AUTHENTICATED AND DELIVERED UPON REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER OF, OR IN EXCHANGE FOR OR IN LIEU OF, THIS SECURITY SHALL BE A GLOBAL SECURITY SUBJECT TO THE FOREGOING, EXCEPT IN SUCH LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES.]

If Securities of a series are issuable in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, as contemplated by Section 3.01, then, notwithstanding Clause (i) of Section 3.01 and the provisions of Section 3.02, any Global Security shall represent such of the Outstanding Securities of such series as shall be specified therein and may provide that it shall represent the aggregate amount of Outstanding Securities from time to time endorsed thereon and that the aggregate amount of Outstanding Securities represented thereby may from time to time be reduced or increased, as the case may be, to reflect exchanges. Any endorsement of a Global Security to reflect the amount, or any reduction or increase in the amount, of Outstanding Securities represented thereby shall be made in such manner and upon instructions given by such Person or Persons as shall be specified therein or in a Company Order. Subject to the provisions of Sections 3.03, 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06, the Trustee shall deliver and redeliver any Global Security in the manner and upon instructions given by the Person or Persons specified therein or in the applicable Company Order. Any instructions by the Company with respect to endorsement or delivery or redelivery of a Global Security shall be in a Company Order (which need not comply with Section 1.02 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel).

The provisions of the last sentence of Section 3.03 shall apply to any Security represented by a Global Security if such Security was never issued and sold by the Company and the Company delivers to the Trustee the Global Security together with a Company Order (which need not comply with Section 1.02 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel) with regard to the reduction in the principal amount of Securities represented thereby, together with the written statement contemplated by the last sentence of Section 3.03.

 

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Section 2.03 Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.

The Trustee’s certificates of authentication shall be in substantially the following form:

TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICATION

This is one of the debt Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

[                                               ],

As Trustee

By:

 

Authorized Signatory

ARTICLE III. THE SECURITIES

Section 3.01 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution and, subject to Section 3.03, to the extent established pursuant to rather than set forth in a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate or Company Order setting forth, or determining the manner of, such establishment, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series:

(a) the form and title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from Securities of any other series);

(b) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 3.04, 3.05, 3.06, 9.06 or 11.07 and except for any Securities which, pursuant to Section 3.03, are deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder); provided, however, that the authorized aggregate principal amount of such series may from time to time be increased above such amount by a Board Resolution to such effect;

(c) the issue price or prices of originally issued Securities, expressed as a percentage of the principal amount, and the original issue date;

(d) the Person to whom any interest on a Security of the series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest;

(e) the date or dates on which the Securities will be issued and on which principal of, and premium, if any, on, any Securities of the series is payable or the method of determination thereof;

(f) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable, or combination thereof) at which any Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, or the method of determination thereof, the date or dates from which any such

 

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interest shall accrue, or the method of determination thereof, the Interest Payment Dates on which any such interest shall be payable and the Regular Record Date for any such interest payable on any Interest Payment Date, or the method by which such date or dates shall be determined, and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months, the right, if any, to extend or defer interest payments and the duration of such extension or deferral;

(g) the place or places where, subject to the provisions of Section 10.02, the principal of and any premium and interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable, Securities of the series may be surrendered for registration or transfer, Securities of the series may be surrendered for exchange, and notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of the series and this Indenture may be served;

(h) the period or periods, if any, within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company and, if other than by a Board Resolution, the manner in which any election by the Company to redeem the Securities shall be evidenced;

(i) the obligation, if any, and the option, if any, of the Company to redeem, purchase or repay any Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund, amortization or analogous provisions or upon the happening of a specified event or at the option of the Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation or option;

(j) if other than a minimum denomination equal to $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which any Securities of the series shall be issuable;

(k) if the debt Securities will be issued in registered or bearer form or both and, if in bearer form, the related terms and conditions and any limitations on issuance of such bearer debt Securities (including exchange for registered debt Securities of the same series);

(l) if the amount of principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index including an index based on a currency or currencies other than in which the Securities of that series are payable or pursuant to a formula, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

(m) if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series shall be denominated, payable, redeemable or purchasable and the manner of determining the equivalent thereof in the currency of the United States of America for any purpose, including for purposes of the definition of “Outstanding” in Section 1.01;

(n) if the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series is to be payable, redeemable or purchasable, at the election of the Company or the Holder thereof, in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are stated to be payable, redeemable, or purchasable, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on such Securities as to which such election is made shall be payable, redeemable or purchasable, the periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which such election is to be made and the amount so payable, redeemable or purchasable (or the manner in which such amount shall be determined);

(o) if other than the entire principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of any Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.02 or provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.04 or the method of determination thereof;

(p) if the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of any Securities of the series will not be determinable as of any one or more dates prior to the Stated Maturity, the amount which shall be deemed to be the principal amount of such Securities as of any such date for any purpose thereunder or hereunder, including the principal amount thereof which shall be due and payable upon any Maturity other than the Stated Maturity or which shall be deemed to be Outstanding as of any date prior to the Stated Maturity (or, in any such case, the manner in which such amount deemed to be the principal amount shall be determined);

 

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(q) if applicable, that the Securities of the series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Section 13.02 or Section 13.03 or both such Sections or if other than as provided in Sections 13.02 or 13.03, the terms and conditions upon which and the manner in which such series of Securities may be defeased or discharged, and, if other than by a Board Resolution, the manner in which any election by the Company to defease or discharge such Securities shall be evidenced;

(r) if applicable, that any Securities of the series shall be issuable in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and, in such case, the respective Depositaries for such Global Securities, the form of any legend or legends which shall be borne by any such Global Security in addition to or in lieu of that set forth in Section 2.04, information with respect to book-entry procedures, and any circumstances in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in Section 3.05 in which any such Global Security may be exchanged in whole or in part for Securities registered, and any transfer of such Global Security in whole or in part may be registered, in the name or names of Persons other than the Depositary for such Global Security or a nominee thereof;

(s) if the debt Security is issued as an original issue discount debt Security, and if so, the yield to maturity;

(t) any deletion from, addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 5.02;

(u) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Article X which applies to Securities of the series or in any defined term used in Article X;

(v) the right, if any, of the Company to defer payments of interest by extending the interest payment periods and specify the duration of such extension, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest shall be payable and whether and under what circumstances additional interest on amounts deferred shall be payable;

(w) if other than the Trustee, the identity of any other trustee, the Security Registrar and any Paying Agent;

(x) if other than as set forth in Article IV, provisions relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

(y) whether the Securities of the series will be guaranteed by any Person or Persons and, if so, the identity of such Person or Persons, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities shall be guaranteed and, if applicable, the terms and conditions upon which such guarantees may be subordinated to other indebtedness of the respective guarantors;

(z) whether the Securities of the series will be secured by any collateral and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities shall be secured and, if applicable, upon which such liens may be subordinated to other liens securing other indebtedness of the Company or any guarantor;

(aa) whether the Securities will be issued in a transaction exempt from registration under the Securities Act and any restriction or condition on the transferability of the Securities of such series;

(bb) the exchanges, if any, on which the Securities may be listed;

(cc) the terms of any right to convert or exchange Securities of such series into any other securities or property of the Company or of any other corporation or Person, and the additions or changes, if any, to this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series to permit or facilitate such conversion or exchange; and

 

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(dd) any other terms of the Securities of the series (which terms shall not be prohibited by the provisions of this Indenture).

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to the Board Resolution referred to above and (subject to Section 3.03) set forth, or determined in the manner provided, in the Officer’s Certificate referred to above or in any such indenture supplemental hereto. Accordingly, the terms of any Security of a series may differ from the terms of other Securities of the same series, if and to the extent provided pursuant to this Section. The matters referenced in any or all of Clauses (a) through (dd) above may be established and set forth or determined as aforesaid with respect to all or any specific Securities of a series (in each case to the extent permitted by the Trust Indenture Act).

Any such Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate referred to above with respect to Securities of any series filed with the Trustee on or before the initial issuance of the Securities of such series shall be incorporated herein by reference with respect to Securities of such series and shall thereafter be deemed to be a part of this Indenture for all purposes relating to Securities of such series as fully as if such Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate were set forth herein in full.

All Securities of any one series need not be issued at the same time and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened, without the consent of the Holders, for increases in the aggregate principal amount of such series of Securities and issuances of additional Securities of such series or for the establishment of additional terms with respect to the Securities of such series.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate setting forth the terms of the series.

Section 3.02 Denominations.

The Securities of each series shall be issuable only in registered form without coupons and only in such denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 3.01. In the absence of any such specified denomination with respect to the Securities of any series, the Securities of such series shall be issuable in a denomination equal to $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof.

Section 3.03 Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating.

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, President, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operating Officer, one of its Vice Presidents, its Treasurer, one of its Assistant Treasurers, its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries (or any other officer of the Company designated in writing by or pursuant to authority of the Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee from time to time). The signature of any of these officers on the Securities may be manual or facsimile.

Securities bearing the manual or facsimile signatures of individuals who were at any time the proper officers of the Company shall bind the Company notwithstanding that such individuals or any of them have ceased to hold such offices prior to the authentication and delivery of such Securities or did not hold such offices at the date of such Securities.

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a Company Order for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, and the Trustee in accordance with the Company Order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities. If the form or terms of the Securities of the series have been established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 3.01, in authenticating such Securities, and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to, Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating,

 

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(a) if the form of such Securities has been established by or pursuant to Board Resolution as permitted by Section 2.01, that such form has been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture;

(b) if the terms of such Securities have been established by or pursuant to Board Resolution as permitted by Section 3.01, that such terms have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture; and

(c) that such Securities, when authenticated by the Trustee and issued and delivered by the Company in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel will constitute valid and legally binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent transfer, reorganization, moratorium and similar laws of general applicability relating to or affecting creditors’ rights and to general equity principles or other customary exceptions.

If such form or terms have been so established, the Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture in accordance with the Board Resolutions will materially adversely affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner which is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 3.01 and of the preceding paragraph, if all Securities of a series are not to be originally issued at one time, it shall not be necessary, unless the Trustee reasonably determines otherwise, for the Company to deliver the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental otherwise required pursuant to Section 3.01 or the Company Order and Opinion of Counsel otherwise required pursuant to the third paragraph of this Section at or prior to the authentication of each Security of such series if such documents are delivered at or prior to the authentication upon original issuance of the first Security of such series to be issued.

Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

No Security shall be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose unless there appears on such Security a certificate of authentication substantially in the form provided for herein executed by the Trustee by manual signature, and such certificate upon any Security shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that such Security has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any Security shall have been authenticated and delivered hereunder but never issued and sold by the Company, and the Company shall deliver such Security to the Trustee for cancellation as provided in Section 3.09, for all purposes of this Indenture such Security shall be deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder and shall never be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 3.04 Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and upon Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities which are printed, lithographed, typewritten, mimeographed or otherwise produced, in any authorized denomination, substantially of the tenor of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued and with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as the officers executing such Securities may determine, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

If temporary Securities of any series are issued, the Company will cause definitive Securities of that series to be prepared without unreasonable delay. After the preparation of definitive Securities of such series, the temporary Securities of such series shall be exchangeable for definitive Securities of such series upon surrender of the temporary Securities of such series at the office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment for that series, without charge to the Holder. Upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities of any series, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor one or more definitive Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series and tenor.

 

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Section 3.05 Registration; Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

The Company shall cause to be kept at the Corporate Trust Office or other designated office of the Trustee a register (the register maintained in such office being herein sometimes collectively, referred to as the Security Register) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall provide for the registration of Securities and of transfers of Securities entitled to registration or transfer as provided herein. The Trustee is hereby appointed “Security Registrar” for the purpose of registering Securities and transfers of Securities as herein provided. The Company may at any time replace such Security Registrar, change such office or agency or act as its own Security Registrar. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any change of the Security Registrar or of the location of such office or agency. At all reasonable times the Security Register shall be available for inspection by the Trustee.

Upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Security of a series at the office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment for that series, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the name of the designated transferee or transferees, one or more new Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

At the option of the Holder, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for other Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of the Securities to be exchanged at such office or agency. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Trustee) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Security Registrar duly executed, by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 3.04, 9.06 or 11.07 not involving any transfer.

If the Securities of any series (or of any series and specified tenor) are to be redeemed in part, neither the Company nor the Trustee shall be required (A) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of that series (or of that series and specified tenor, as the case may be) during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of any such Securities selected for redemption under Section 11.03 and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (B) to register the transfer of or exchange any Security so selected for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any Security being redeemed in part.

The provisions of Clauses (a), (b), (c) and (d) below shall apply only to Global Securities:

(a) Each Global Security authenticated under this Indenture shall be registered in the name of the Depositary designated for such Global Security or a nominee thereof and delivered to such Depositary or a nominee thereof or custodian therefor, and each such Global Security shall constitute a single Security for all purposes of this Indenture.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, and subject to such applicable provisions, if any, as may be specified as contemplated by Section 3.01, no Global Security may be exchanged in whole or in part for Securities registered, and no transfer of a Global Security in whole or in part may be registered, in the name of

 

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any Person other than the Depositary for such Global Security or a nominee thereof unless (1) such Depositary has notified the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or has ceased to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor Depositary is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company’s receipt of such notice, (2) there shall have occurred and be continuing an Event of Default with respect to such Global Security and the Security Registrar has received a request from the Depositary to issue certificated securities in lieu of the Global Security, (3) the Company shall determine in its sole discretion that Securities of a series issued in global form shall no longer be represented by a Global Security, or (4) there shall exist such circumstances, if any, in addition to or in lieu of the foregoing as have been specified for this purpose as contemplated by Section 3.01, then in any such case, such Global Security may be exchanged by such Depositary for definitive Securities of the same series, of any authorized denomination and of a like aggregate principal amount and tenor, registered in the names of, and the transfer of such Global Security or portion thereof may be registered to, such Persons as such Depositary shall direct. If the Company designates a successor Depositary pursuant to Clause (1) above, such Global Security shall promptly be exchanged in whole for one or more other Global Securities registered in the name of the successor Depositary, whereupon such designated successor shall be the Depositary for such successor Global Security or Global Securities and the provisions of Clauses (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this Section shall continue to apply thereto.

(c) Subject to Clause (b) above and to such applicable provisions, if any, as may be specified as contemplated by Section 3.01, any exchange of a Global Security for other Securities may be made in whole or in part, and all Securities issued in exchange for a Global Security or any portion thereof shall be registered in such names as the Depositary for such Global Security shall direct.

(d) Every Security authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for or in lieu of, a Global Security or any portion thereof, whether pursuant to this Section, Section 3.04, 3.06, 9.06 or 11.07 or otherwise, shall be authenticated and delivered in the form of, and shall be, a Global Security, unless such Security is registered in the name of a Person other than the Depositary for such Global Security or a nominee thereof.

Section 3.06 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, together with such security or indemnity as may be required by the Company or the Trustee to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding and shall cancel and dispose of such mutilated security in accordance with its customary procedures.

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in lieu of any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously Outstanding. If, after the delivery of such new Security, a bona fide purchaser of the original Security in lieu of which such new Security was issued presents for payment or registration such original Security, the Trustee shall be entitled to recover such new Security from the party to whom it was delivered or any party taking therefrom, except a bona fide purchaser, and shall be entitled to recover upon the security or indemnity provided therefor to the extent of any loss, damage, cost or expense incurred by the Company and the Trustee in connection therewith.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

Upon the issuance of any new Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of counsel to the Company and the fees and expenses of the Trustee and its counsel) connected therewith.

 

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Every new Security of any series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that series duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

Section 3.07 Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved.

Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 3.01 with respect to any series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest.

Any interest on any Security of any series which is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date (herein called Defaulted Interest) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on the relevant Regular Record Date by virtue of having been such Holder, and such Defaulted Interest may be paid by the Company, at its election in each case, as provided in Clause (a) or (b) below:

(a) The Company may elect to make payment of any Defaulted Interest to the Persons in whose names the Securities of such series (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each Security of such series and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this Clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee, in consultation with the Company, shall fix a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall be not more than 15 days and not less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such Special Record Date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor to be given to each Holder of Securities of such series in the manner set forth in Section 1.06, not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor having been so mailed, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names the Securities of such series (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on such Special Record Date and shall no longer be payable pursuant to the following Clause (b).

(b) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on the Securities of any series in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this Clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section and Section 3.05, each Security delivered under this Indenture upon registration of transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, which were carried by such other Security.

For each series of Securities, the Company shall, prior to Noon, New York City time, on each payment date for principal and premium, if any, and interest, if any, deposit with the Trustee money in immediately available funds sufficient to make cash payments due on the applicable payment date.

 

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In the case of any Security which is converted after any Regular Record Date and on or prior to the next succeeding Interest Payment Date (other than any Security whose Maturity is prior to such Interest Payment Date), interest whose Stated Maturity is on such Interest Payment Date shall be payable on such Interest Payment Date notwithstanding such conversion, and such interest (whether or not punctually paid or made available for payment) shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on such Regular Record Date. Except as otherwise expressly provided in the immediately preceding sentence, in the case of any Security which is converted, interest whose Stated Maturity is after the date of conversion of such Security shall not be payable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the terms of any Security that may be converted may provide that the provisions of this paragraph do not apply, or apply with such additions, changes or omissions as may be provided thereby, to such Security.

Section 3.08 Persons Deemed Owners.

Except as otherwise contemplated by Section 3.01 with respect to any series of Securities, prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of principal of and any premium and (subject to Sections 3.05 and 3.07) any interest on such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, whether or not such Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

No holder of any beneficial interest in any Global Security held on its behalf by a Depositary shall have any rights under this Indenture with respect to such Global Security, and such Depositary may be treated by the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee as the owner of such Global Security for all purposes whatsoever. None of the Company, the Trustee nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests of a Global Security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

Section 3.09 Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption, registration of transfer or exchange or conversion or for credit against any sinking fund payment shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee and, if not already cancelled, shall be promptly cancelled by it. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold, and all Securities so delivered shall be promptly cancelled by the Trustee. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture. All cancelled Securities held by the Trustee shall be disposed of in accordance with its customary procedures as directed by a Company Order, and the Trustee shall thereafter deliver to the Company a certificate with respect to such disposition.

Section 3.10 Computation of Interest.

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for Securities of any series, interest on the Securities of each series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

Section 3.11 CUSIP Numbers

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers (in addition to the other identification numbers printed on the Securities), if then in use, and, if so, the Trustee shall use such “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided, however, that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers.

 

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Section 3.12 Original Issue Discount.

If any of the Securities is an Original Issue Discount Security, the Company shall file with the Trustee promptly at the end of each calendar year (1) a written notice specifying the amount of original issue discount (including daily rates and accrual periods) accrued on such Outstanding Original Issue Discount Securities as of the end of such year and (2) such other specific information relating to such original issue discount as may then be relevant under the Internal Revenue Code.

ARTICLE IV. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

Section 4.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

This Indenture shall, upon Company Request, cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of any series (except as to any surviving rights of registration of transfer or exchange of Securities herein expressly provided for), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to such Securities, when:

(a) either

(i) all such Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than (i) such Securities which have been mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 3.06 and (ii) such Securities for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereafter repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 10.03) have been delivered to the Trustee cancelled or for cancellation; or

(ii) all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee as cancelled or for cancellation

(1) have become due and payable, or

(2) will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

(3) are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company,

and the Company in the case of (i), (ii) or (iii) above, has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee, as trust funds in trust for such purpose, an amount of money in the currency or currency units in which such Securities are payable sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee as cancelled or for cancellation, for principal and any premium and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of such Securities which have become due and payable) or to the Stated Maturity or Redemption Date, as the case may be;

(b) the Company has paid or caused to be paid, or otherwise made provision for the payment of, all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such Securities; and

(c) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to such Securities have been complied with.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 6.07, the obligations of the Trustee to any Authenticating Agent under Section 6.14 and the right of the Trustee to resign under Section 6.10 shall survive, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to subclause (2) of Clause (a) of this Section, the obligations of the Trustee under Section 4.02 and the last paragraph of Section 10.03 shall survive such satisfaction and discharge.

 

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Section 4.02 Application of Trust Money.

Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 10.03, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 4.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Persons entitled thereto, of the principal and any premium and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with the Trustee. All money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 4.01 (and held by it or any Paying Agent) for the payment of such Securities subsequently converted into other property shall be returned to the Company upon Company Request. The Company may direct by a Company Order the investment of any money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 4.01, without distinction between principal and income, in (1) United States Treasury Securities with a maturity of one year or less or (2) a money market fund that invests solely in short term United States Treasury Securities (including money market funds for which the Trustee or an affiliate of the Trustee serves as investment advisor, administrator, shareholder, servicing agent and/or custodian or sub-custodian, notwithstanding that (a) the Trustee charges and collects fees and expenses from such funds for services rendered and (b) the Trustee charges and collects fees and expenses for services rendered pursuant to this Indenture at any time), and from time to time the Company may direct the reinvestment of all or a portion of such money in other securities or funds meeting the criteria specified in Clause (1) or (2) of this Section.

ARTICLE V. REMEDIES

Section 5.01 Events of Default.

Except as may otherwise be provided pursuant to Section 3.01 for Securities of any series, an Event of Default, wherever used herein or in a Security issued hereunder with respect to Securities of any series, means any one of the following events (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

(a) default in the payment of any interest upon any Security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days; or

(b) default in the payment of the principal of or any premium on any Security of that series at its Maturity; or

(c) default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due by the terms of a Security of that series; or

(d) default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant of the Company in this Indenture (other than a default in the performance or the breach of a covenant which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in this Section or which has expressly been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of series of Securities other than that series), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

(e) the entry by a court having jurisdiction in the premises of (1) a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case or proceeding under any applicable Federal or State bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or (2) a decree or order adjudging the Company bankrupt or insolvent, or approving as properly filed a petition seeking reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition of or in respect of the Company under any applicable Federal or State law, or appointing a custodian, receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator or other similar official of the Company or of any substantial part of its property, or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and the continuance of any such decree or order for relief or any such other decree or order unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

 

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(f) the commencement by the Company of a voluntary case or proceeding under any applicable Federal or State bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or of any other case or proceeding to be adjudicated a bankrupt or insolvent, or the consent by it to the entry of a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case or proceeding under any applicable Federal or State bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or to the commencement of any bankruptcy or insolvency case or proceeding against it, or the filing by it of a petition or answer or consent seeking reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition of or in respect of the Company under any applicable Federal or State law, or the consent by it to the filing of such petition or to the appointment of or taking possession by a custodian, receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator or other similar official of the Company of any substantial part of its property, or the making by it of an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or the admission by it in writing of its inability to pay its debts generally as they become due, or the taking of corporate action by the Company in furtherance of any such action; or

(g) any other Event of Default provided as contemplated by Section 3.01 with respect to Securities of that series.

Section 5.02 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in Section 5.01(e) or 5.01(f)) with respect to Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs and is continuing, then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series may declare the principal amount of all the Securities of that series (or, if any Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount of such Securities as may be specified by the terms thereof) to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 5.01(e) or 5.01(f) with respect to Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs, the principal amount of all the Securities of that series (or, if any Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount of such Securities as may be specified by the terms thereof) shall automatically, and without any declaration or other action on the part of the Trustee or any Holder, become immediately due and payable. Upon payment of such amount, all obligations of the Company in respect of the payment of principal and interest of the Securities of such series shall terminate.

Except as may otherwise be provided pursuant to Section 3.01 for all or any specific Securities of any series, at any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to Securities of any series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

(a) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all

(i) overdue interest on all Securities of that series,

(ii) the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any Securities of that series which have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration and any interest thereon at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities,

(iii) to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest upon overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and

(iv) all sums paid or advanced by the Trustee hereunder and the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel;

 

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and

(b) all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of that series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 5.13.

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 5.03 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

The Company covenants that if

(a) default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 90 days, or

(b) default is made in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any Security at the Maturity thereof,

then the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and any premium and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and premium and on any overdue interest, at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities, wherever situated.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

Section 5.04 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

In case of any judicial proceeding relative to the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities), its property or its creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand for overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise, to take any and all actions authorized under the Trust Indenture Act in order to have claims of the Holders and the Trustee allowed in any such proceeding. In particular, the Trustee shall be authorized to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same; and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.07.

No provision of this Indenture shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding; provided, however, that the Trustee may, on behalf of the Holders, vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar official and be a member of a creditors’ or other similar committee.

 

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Section 5.05 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery shall after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

Section 5.06 Application of Money Collected.

Any money or property collected or to be applied by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal or any premium or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.07;

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and any premium and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind (other than contractual subordination agreements pursuant to the Indenture), according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and any premium and interest, respectively; and

Third: The balance, if any, to the Company.

Section 5.07 Limitation on Suits.

No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator or sequestrator (or similar official) or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

(a) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that series;

(b) the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

(c) such Holder or Holders have offered, and if requested, provided to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(d) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer and, if requested, provision of security or indemnity, has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(e) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series;

it being understood and intended that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all of such Holders.

 

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Section 5.08 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal Premium and Interest and to Convert Securities.

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional to receive payment of the principal of and any premium and (subject to Sections 3.05 and 3.07) interest on such Security on the respective Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the Redemption Date or, if the terms of such Security so provide, to convert such Security in accordance with its terms) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and, if applicable, any such right to convert, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

Section 5.09 Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

Section 5.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in the last paragraph of Section 3.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 5.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

Section 5.12 Control by Holders.

Subject to Section 6.03, the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such series, provided that:

(a) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture; and

(b) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction.

 

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Section 5.13 Waiver of Past Defaults.

The Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any past default hereunder with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default

(a) in the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any Security of such series, or

(b) in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which under Article IX cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security of such series affected.

Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 5.14 Undertaking for Costs.

In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, a court may require any party litigant in such suit to file an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit (including the reasonable compensation, expenses and disbursements of its agents and counsel), and may assess reasonable costs against any such party litigant, in the manner and to the extent provided in the Trust Indenture Act; provided that neither this Section nor the Trust Indenture Act shall be deemed to authorize any court to require such an undertaking or to make such an assessment in any suit instituted by the Company or the Trustee, a suit by a Holder under Section 5.08, or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities.

Section 5.15 Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws.

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any usury, stay or extension law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenant that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

ARTICLE VI. THE TRUSTEE

Section 6.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities.

(a) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default with respect to any series of Securities,

(i) the Trustee undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee with respect to such series; and

(ii) in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.

(b) In case an Event of Default with respect to any series of Securities has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise with respect to the Securities of such series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

 

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(c) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i) this Subsection shall not be construed to limit the effect of Subsection (a) of this Section;

(ii) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

(iii) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series; and

(iv) no provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights and powers, if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it.

(d) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Section.

Section 6.02 Notice of Defaults.

Within 90 days after the occurrence, and during the continuance, of any default with respect to the Securities of any series which is known to the Trustee, the Trustee shall transmit, in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, notice of all such uncured or unwaived defaults; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on Securities of any series or in the payment of any sinking or purchase fund installment with respect to such Securities, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Holders of Securities of such series; and provided, further, however, that in the case of any default of the character specified in Section 5.01(d) with respect to the Securities of such series, no such notice to Holders of Securities shall be given until at least 60 days after the occurrence thereof. For the purpose of this Section, the term “default” means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default.

Section 6.03 Certain Rights of Trustee.

Subject to the provisions of Section 6.01:

(a) the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(b) any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Company Request or Company Order, and any resolution of the Board of Directors shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution;

(c) whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, rely upon an Officer’s Certificate;

 

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(d) the Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

(e) the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction;

(f) the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may, without obligation to do so, make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit, and, if the Trustee shall determine to make such further inquiry or investigation, it shall be entitled to examine the books, records and premises of the Company, personally or by agent or attorney;

(g) the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

(h) the rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder and to its agents;

(i) the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken, suffered, or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and reasonably believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(j) in no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action;

(k) in no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services (it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to avoid and mitigate the effects of such occurrences and to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances);

(l) the Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default shall have been received by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities and this Indenture; and

(m) the Trustee may request that the Company deliver a certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture.

Section 6.04 Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.

The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Company and neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent assumes any responsibility for their correctness. Neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent makes any representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities. Neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent shall be accountable for the use or application by the Company of Securities or the proceeds thereof.

 

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Section 6.05 May Hold Securities.

The Trustee, any Authenticating Agent, any Paying Agent, any Security Registrar or any other agent of the Company, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and, subject to Sections 6.08 and 6.13, may otherwise deal with the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, Authenticating Agent, Paying Agent, Security Registrar or such other agent.

Section 6.06 Money Held in Trust.

Money held by the Trustee in trust hereunder need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any money received by it hereunder except as otherwise agreed with the Company.

Section 6.07 Compensation and Reimbursement.

The Company agrees:

(i) to pay to the Trustee from time to time such reasonable compensation as shall be agreed in writing between the parties for all services rendered by it hereunder (which compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust);

(ii) except as otherwise expressly provided herein, to reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the reasonable expenses and disbursements of its agents and counsel), except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may be attributable to its own negligence or willful misconduct, and the Trustee shall provide the Company reasonable notice of any expenditure not in the ordinary course of business; and

(iii) to indemnify the Trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or willful misconduct on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of the trust or trusts hereunder, including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder.

The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder.

Without limiting any rights available to the Trustee under applicable law, when the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 5.01(e) or Section 5.01(f), the expenses (including the reasonable charges and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for such services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any applicable Federal or State bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law.

The provisions of this Section shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture and the defeasance of the Securities.

Section 6.08 Conflicting Interests.

If the Trustee has or shall acquire a conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee shall either eliminate such interest or resign, to the extent and in the manner provided by, and subject to the provisions of, the Trust Indenture Act and this Indenture. To the extent permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee shall not be deemed to have a conflicting interest by virtue of being a trustee under this Indenture with respect to Securities of more than one series.

 

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Section 6.09 Corporate Trustee Required, Eligibility.

There shall at all times be one (and only one) Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of each series, which may be Trustee hereunder for Securities of one or more other series. Each Trustee shall be a Person that is eligible pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act to act as such and has a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000. If any such Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of its supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section and to the extent permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, the combined capital and surplus of such Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect hereinafter specified in this Article.

Section 6.10 Resignation and Removal, Appointment of Successor.

No resignation or removal of the Trustee and no appointment of a successor Trustee pursuant to this Article shall become effective until the acceptance of appointment by the successor Trustee in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11.

The Trustee may resign at any time with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company. If the instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee required by Section 6.11 shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

The Trustee may be removed at any time with respect to the Securities of any series by Act of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, by written notice delivered to the Trustee and to the Company. If an instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after giving of such notice of removal, the removed Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

If at any time:

(a) the Trustee shall fail to comply with Section 6.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security for at least six months, or

(b) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible under Section 6.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Holder, or

(c) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting or shall be adjudged bankrupt or insolvent or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation,

then, in any such case, (1) the Company by a Board Resolution may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities of which such Trustee acts as trustee, or (2) subject to Section 5.14, Holders of 10% in aggregate principal amount of Securities of any series who have been bona fide Holders of such Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of themselves and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee with respect to all Securities of which such Trustee acts as trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee or Trustees.

If the Trustee shall resign, be removed or become incapable of acting, or if a vacancy shall occur in the office of Trustee for any cause, with respect to the Securities of one or more series, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee or Trustees with respect to the Securities of that or those series (it being understood that any such successor Trustee may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more or all of such series and that at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series) and shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11. If, within one year after such resignation, removal or

 

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incapability, or the occurrence of such vacancy, a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall be appointed by Act of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series delivered to the Company and the retiring Trustee, the successor Trustee so appointed shall, forthwith upon its acceptance of such appointment in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11, become the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and to that extent supersede the successor Trustee appointed by the Company. If no successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall have been so appointed by the Company or the Holders and accepted appointment in the manner required by Section 6.11, Holders of 10% in aggregate principal amount of Securities of any series who have been bona fide Holders of such Securities of such series for at least six months or the Trustee may, on behalf of themselves and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

The Company shall give notice of each resignation and each removal of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and each appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner provided in Section 1.06. Each notice shall include the name of the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and the address of its Corporate Trust Office.

Section 6.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor.

In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor Trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges and reimbursement of its expenses (including reasonable fees and expenses of counsel and agents), if any, to which such retiring Trustee is otherwise legally entitled, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all the rights, powers and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor Trustee shall accept such appointment and which (a) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor Trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, (b) if the retiring Trustee is not retiring with respect to all Securities, shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (c) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein and each such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates.

Upon request of any such successor Trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in the first or second preceding paragraph, as the case may be.

 

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No successor Trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor Trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

Section 6.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided such corporation shall be otherwise qualified and eligible under this Article, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities; and in case at that time any Securities shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor to the Trustee; and in all such cases such certificates shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the Securities or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have.

Section 6.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

If and when the Trustee shall be or become a creditor of the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities), the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act regarding the collection of claims against the Company (or any such other obligor).

Section 6.14 Appointment of Authenticating Agent.

The Trustee may appoint an Authenticating Agent or Agents with respect to one or more series of Securities which shall be authorized to act on behalf of and subject to the direction of the Trustee to authenticate and deliver Securities of such series issued upon original issue and upon exchange, registration of transfer or partial redemption thereof or pursuant to Section 3.06, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. Wherever reference is made in this Indenture to the authentication and delivery of Securities by the Trustee or the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, such reference shall be deemed to include authentication and delivery on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent and a certificate of authentication executed on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia, authorized under such laws to act as Authenticating Agent, having a combined capital and surplus of not less than $50,000,000 and subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authority. If such Authenticating Agent publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of said supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such Authenticating Agent shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time an Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, such Authenticating Agent shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Section.

Any corporation into which an Authenticating Agent may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which such Authenticating Agent shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate agency or corporate trust business of an Authenticating Agent, shall be the successor of the Authenticating Agent hereunder, provided such corporation shall be otherwise eligible under this Section, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of the Trustee or the Authenticating Agent.

An Authenticating Agent may resign at any time by giving written notice thereof to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time terminate the agency of an Authenticating Agent by giving written notice thereof to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon receiving such a notice of resignation or upon such a termination, or in case at any time such Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the

 

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provisions of this Section, the Trustee may appoint a successor Authenticating Agent which shall be acceptable to the Company and shall give notice of such appointment in the manner provided in Section 1.06 to all Holders of Securities of the series with respect to which such Authenticating Agent will serve. Any successor Authenticating Agent upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent. No successor Authenticating Agent shall be appointed unless eligible under the provisions of this Section.

Except with respect to an Authenticating Agent appointed at the request of the Company, the Trustee agrees to pay to each Authenticating Agent from time to time reasonable compensation for its services under this Section.

If an appointment with respect to one or more series is made pursuant to this Section, the Securities of such series may have endorsed thereon, in addition to the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, an alternative certificate of authentication in the following form:

This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

[                                              ], as Trustee

By:

                                                                                       , as
 

Authenticating Agent

 

By:                                                                                    

         Authorized Signatory

ARTICLE VII. HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY

Section 7.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders.

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee:

(a) semi-annually, not more than 15 days after each Regular Record Date, a list for each series of Securities, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities of such series as of such Regular Record Date; and

(b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished;

provided, however, that if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar for the Securities of a series, no such list need be furnished with respect to such series of Securities.

Section 7.02 Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders.

Subject to compliance with its obligations pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee (i) shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, the names and addresses of Holders contained in the most recent list furnished to the Trustee as provided in Section 7.01 and the names and addresses of Holders received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar and (ii) may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 7.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

The rights of Holders to communicate with other Holders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities, and the corresponding rights and privileges of the Trustee shall be as provided by the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Every Holder of Securities, by receiving and holding the same, agrees with the Company and the Trustee that none of the Company, the Trustee nor any agent of any of them shall be held accountable by reason of any disclosure of information as to names and addresses of Holders made pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 7.03 Reports by Trustee.

The Trustee shall transmit to Holders such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided pursuant thereto. As promptly as practicable after each May 15 beginning with the May 15 following the date of this Indenture, and in any event prior to July 15 in each year, the Trustee shall deliver to each Holder a brief report dated as of May 15 that complies with Trust Indenture Act Section 313(a). The Trustee also shall comply with Trust Indenture Act Section 313(b). Prior to delivery to the Holders, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company a copy of any report it delivers to Holders pursuant to this Section.

A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Holders, be filed by the Trustee with each stock exchange and automated quotation system, if any, upon which any Securities are listed, with the Commission and with the Company. The Company will notify the Trustee when any Securities are listed on any stock exchange or automated quotation system.

Section 7.04 Reports by Company.

The Company shall file with the Trustee and the Commission, and transmit to Holders, such information, documents and other reports, and such summaries thereof as may be required pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act; provided that any such information, documents or reports required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act shall be filed with the Trustee within 15 days after the Company files the same with the Commission.

Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only, and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

Such information, documents, reports and summaries shall be deemed to have been (i) filed by the Company with the Trustee and (ii) transmitted by the Company to Holders, as the case may be, if the Company has filed such information, documents, reports and summaries with the Commission using the EDGAR filing system (or any successor filing system) and such reports are publicly available, in each case to the extent such filing with the EDGAR filing system (or any successor filing system) and the foregoing effect thereof, is not prohibited by the Act.

ARTICLE VIII. CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE

Section 8.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc., Only on Certain Terms.

The Company shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person or convey, transfer or lease (as lessor) its properties and assets as, or substantially as, an entirety to any Person, unless:

(a) (i) in the case of a merger, (1) the Company is the surviving Person, or (2) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Company as, or substantially as, an entirety shall be a corporation or partnership, shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia and shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of and any premium and interest on all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Company to be performed or observed;

 

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(b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall exist; and

(c) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

Section 8.02 Successor Substituted.

Upon any consolidation of the Company with, or merger of the Company into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease (as lessor) of the properties and assets of the Company as, or substantially as, an entirety in accordance with Section 8.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease (where the Company is the lessor), the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

ARTICLE IX. SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders.

Without the consent of any Holders, the Company and the Trustee, at any time and from time to time, may enter into one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, for any of the following purposes:

(a) to evidence the succession of another Person to the Company under this Indenture and the Securities and the assumption by such successor of the obligations of the Company hereunder;

(b) to add covenants of the Company for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company with regard to all or any series of Securities (and if any such surrender is to be made with regard to less than all series of Securities, stating that such surrender is expressly being made solely with regard to such series);

(c) to add any additional Events of Default for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such additional Events of Default are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such additional Events of Default are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series);

(d) to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in bearer form, registrable or not registrable as to principal, and with or without interest coupons, or to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in uncertificated form;

(e) to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of all or any series of Securities (and if such addition, change or elimination is to apply to less than all series of Securities, stating that it is expressly being made to apply solely with respect to such series); provided that any such addition, change or elimination (1) shall neither (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (2) shall become effective only when there is no such Security Outstanding;

(f) to secure the Securities or any guarantee with respect to any Securities;

 

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(g) to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series hereunder;

(h) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11;

(i) to cure any ambiguity or to correct or supplement any provision herein which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provision herein;

(j) to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture, provided that such action pursuant to this Clause (j) shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of any Securities of any Outstanding series in any material respect;

(k) to add one or more guarantors with respect to the Securities as parties to this Indenture or to release guarantors in accordance with the provisions of any supplemental indenture;

(l) to qualify this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

(m) to supplement any provisions of this Indenture necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of Securities; provided that such action does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of such series or any other series;

(n) to comply with the rules or regulations of any securities exchange or automated quotation system on which any of the Securities may be listed or traded;

(o) to comply with the rules of any applicable Depositary;

(p) subject to any limitations established pursuant to Section 3.01, to provide for the issuance of additional Securities of any series; or

(q) to conform any provision of this Indenture, any supplemental indenture, one or more series of Securities or any related guarantees or security documents, if any, to the description of such Securities contained in the Company’s prospectus, prospectus supplement, offering memorandum or similar document with respect to the offering of the Securities of such series.

Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Holders.

With the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange for Securities), by Act of said Holders delivered to the Company and the Trustee, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to, or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of, this Indenture, or modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security of such series affected thereby:

(a) change the Stated Maturity of the principal of, or any installment of principal of or interest, if any, on, any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof or the rate of interest thereon or any premium payable upon the redemption thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security or any other Security which would be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.02, or change the Company’s obligation to maintain an office or agency for payment of Securities and the other matters specified herein, or the coin or currency in which any Security is payable, or impair the right of any Holder to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption, on or after the Redemption Date), or alter the method of computation of interest;

 

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(b) reduce the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose Holders is required for any such supplemental indenture, or the consent of whose Holders is required for any waiver (of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences) provided for in this Indenture;

(c) modify any of the provisions of this Section, Section 5.13 and Section 10.06 except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby; provided, however, that this Clause shall not be deemed to require the consent of any Holder with respect to changes in the references to “the Trustee” and concomitant changes in this Section and Section 10.06, or the deletion of this proviso, in accordance with the requirements of Sections 6.11 and 9.01(h); or

(d) if the Securities of any series are convertible into or for any other securities or property of the Company, make any change that adversely affects in any material respect the right to convert any Security of such series (except as permitted by Section 9.01) or decrease the conversion rate or increase the conversion price of any such Security of such series, unless such decrease or increase is permitted by the terms of such Security.

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture which has expressly been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or which modifies the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or other provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series.

It shall not be necessary for any Act of Holders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such Act shall approve the substance thereof.

Section 9.03 Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate and Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Section 9.04 Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and such supplemental indenture shall form a part of this Indenture, for all purposes; and every Holder of Securities theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder shall be bound thereby.

Section 9.05 Conformity with Trust Indenture Act.

Every supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article shall conform to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 9.06 Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures.

Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to this Article may, and shall if required by the Trustee, bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Company, to any such supplemental indenture may be prepared and executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee in exchange for Outstanding Securities of such series. Failure to make a notation or issue a new Security shall not affect the validity and effect of any amendment, supplement or waiver.

 

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ARTICLE X. COVENANTS

Section 10.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the Securities of that series in accordance with the terms of the Securities and this Indenture. Principal, premium, if any, and interest will be considered paid on the date due if the Trustee or Paying Agent, if other than the Company or a Subsidiary thereof, holds as of Noon, New York City time, on the due date, money deposited by the Company in immediately available funds and designated for and sufficient to pay all principal, premium, if any, and interest on the Notes then due.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Indenture, the Company or the Paying Agent may, to the extent it is required to do so by law, deduct or withhold income or other similar taxes imposed by the United States of America or other domestic or foreign taxing authorities from principal or interest payments hereunder.

Section 10.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

The Company will maintain in each Place of Payment for any series of Securities an office or agency where Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, where Securities of that series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, where Securities may be surrendered for conversion, and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be served. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with

the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities of one or more series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

Except as otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities as contemplated by Section 3.01, the Company hereby initially designates as the Place of Payment for each series of Securities The City of New York, and initially appoints the Trustee as Paying Agent at its Corporate Trust Office as the Company’s office or agency for each such purpose in such city; provided that with respect to a Global Security, and except as may otherwise be specified for such Global Security as contemplated by Section 3.01, any payment, presentation, surrender of delivery effected pursuant to the Applicable Procedures of the Depositary for such Global Security shall be deemed to have been effected at the Place of Payment for such Global Securities in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture.

Section 10.03 Money for Securities Payments to Be Held in Trust.

If the Company shall at any time act as its own Paying Agent with respect to any series of Securities, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or any premium or interest on any of the Securities of that series, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay the principal and any premium and interest so becoming due until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.

Whenever the Company shall have one or more Paying Agents for any series of Securities, it will, on or prior to Noon, New York City time, on each due date of the principal of or any premium or interest on any

 

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Securities of that series, deposit (or, if the Company has deposited any trust funds with a trustee pursuant to Section 13.04(a), cause such trustee to deposit) with a Paying Agent a sum sufficient to pay such amount, such sum to be held as provided by the Trust Indenture Act, and (unless such Paying Agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.

The Company will cause each Paying Agent for any series of Securities other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such Paying Agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section, that such Paying Agent will (1) hold all sums held by it for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on Securities of that series in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided; (2) give the Trustee notice of any default by the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities of that series) in the making of any payment of principal (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the Securities of that series; and (3) during the continuance of any such default, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums held in trust by such Paying Agent for payment in respect of the Securities of that series.

The Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or by Company Order direct any Paying Agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such Paying Agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same trusts as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such Paying Agent; and, upon such payment by any Paying Agent to the Trustee, such Paying Agent shall be released from any further liability with respect to such money.

Subject to any applicable abandoned property law, any money deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or then held by the Company, in trust for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any Security of any series and remaining unclaimed for two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable shall be paid to the Company on Company Request, or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and the Holder of such Security shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money, and all liability of the Company as trustee thereof, shall thereupon cease.

Section 10.04 Statement by Officers as to Default.

The Company will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each of its fiscal years ending after the date hereof, an Officer’s Certificate, stating whether or not to the best knowledge of the signer thereof the Company is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder) and, if the Company shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge.

Section 10.05 Existence.

Subject to Article VIII, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate (or equivalent) existence.

Section 10.06 Waiver of Certain Covenants.

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for Securities of such series, the Company may, with respect to the Securities of any series, omit in any particular instance to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in any covenant provided pursuant to Section 3.01(u), 9.01(b) or 9.01(g) for the benefit of the Holders of such series or in Article VIII or Sections 10.04 or 10.05, if before the time for such compliance the Holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series shall, by Act of such Holders, either waive such compliance in such instance or generally waive compliance with such term, provision or condition, but no such waiver shall extend to or affect such term, provision or condition except to the extent so expressly waived, and, until such waiver shall become effective, the obligations of the Company and the duties of the Trustee in respect of any such term, provision or condition shall remain in full force and effect.

 

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ARTICLE XI. REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES

Section 11.01 Applicability of Article.

Securities of any series which are redeemable before their Stated Maturity shall be redeemable in accordance with their terms and (except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for such Securities) in accordance with this Article.

Section 11.02 Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee.

The election of the Company to redeem any Securities shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate or in another manner specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for such Securities. In case of any redemption at the election of the Company of the Securities of any series (including any such redemption affecting only a single Security), the Company shall, not less than 35 days prior to the Redemption Date fixed by the Company (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), notify the Trustee of such Redemption Date, of the principal amount of Securities of such series to be redeemed and, if applicable, of the tenor of the Securities to be redeemed. In the case of any redemption of Securities (a) prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, or (b) pursuant to an election of the Company which is subject to a condition specified in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with such restriction or condition.

Section 11.03 Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed.

If less than all the Securities of any series are to be redeemed (unless all the Securities of such series and of a specified tenor are to be redeemed or unless such redemption affects only a single Security), the particular Securities to be redeemed shall be selected not more than 45 days prior to the Redemption Date by the Trustee, from the Outstanding Securities of such series not previously called for redemption, by such method as the Trustee shall deem fair and appropriate and which complies with any securities exchange or other Applicable Procedures; provided that the unredeemed portion of the principal amount of any Security shall be in an authorized denomination (which shall not be less than the minimum authorized denomination) for such Security. If less than all the Securities of such series and of a specified tenor are to be redeemed (unless such redemption affects only a single Security), the particular Securities to be redeemed shall be selected not more than 45 days prior to the Redemption Date by the Trustee, from the Outstanding Securities of such series and specified tenor not previously called for redemption in accordance with the preceding sentence.

If any Security selected for partial redemption is converted in part before termination of the conversion right with respect to the portion of the Security so selected, the converted portion of such Security shall be deemed (so far as may be) to be the portion selected for redemption. Securities which have been converted during a selection of securities to be redeemed shall be treated by the Trustee as Outstanding for the purpose of such selection.

The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company and each Security Registrar in writing of the Securities selected for redemption as aforesaid and, in case of any Securities selected for partial redemption as aforesaid, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed.

The provisions of the three preceding paragraphs shall not apply with respect to any redemption affecting only a single Security, whether such Security is to be redeemed in whole or in part. In the case of any such redemption in part, the unredeemed portion of the principal amount of the Security shall be in an authorized denomination (which shall not be less than the minimum authorized denomination) for such Security.

For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities shall relate, in the case of any Securities redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Securities which has been or is to be redeemed. If the Company shall so direct, Securities registered in the name of the Company, any Affiliate or any Subsidiary thereof shall not be included in the Securities selected for redemption.

 

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Section 11.04 Notice of Redemption.

Notice of redemption shall be given by first-class mail, postage prepaid, mailed or otherwise in accordance with the Applicable Procedures not less than 10 nor more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date (or within such period as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for the relevant Securities), to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed, at such Holder’s address appearing in the Security Register.

All notices of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any) and shall state:

(a) the Redemption Date;

(b) the Redemption Price (or the method of calculating such price);

(c) if less than all the Outstanding Securities of any series consisting of more than a single Security are to be redeemed, the identification (and, in the case of partial redemption of any such Securities, the principal amounts) of the particular Securities to be redeemed and, if less than all the Outstanding Securities of any series consisting of a single Security are to be redeemed, the principal amount of the particular Security to be redeemed;

(d) that on the Redemption Date, the Redemption Price will become due and payable upon each such Security to be redeemed and, if applicable, that interest thereon will cease to accrue on and after said date;

(e) the place or places where each such Security is to be surrendered for payment of the Redemption Price;

(f) that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case; and

(g) for any Securities that by their terms may be converted, the terms of conversion, the date on which the right to convert the Security to be redeemed will terminate and the place or places where such Securities may be surrendered for conversion.

Notice of redemption of Securities to be redeemed at the election of the Company shall be given by the Company or, at the Company’s request (which may be rescinded or revoked at any time prior the time at which the Trustee shall have given such notice to the Holders), by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Company. The notice, if sent in the manner herein provided, shall be conclusively presumed to have been given, whether or not the Holder receives such notice. In any case, failure to give such notice by mail or otherwise in accordance with the Applicable Procedures or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities.

Section 11.05 Deposit of Redemption Price.

On or prior to Noon, New York City time, on any Redemption Date, the Company shall deposit with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 10.03) an amount of money sufficient to pay the Redemption Price of, and (except if the Redemption Date shall be an Interest Payment Date or the Securities of the series provide otherwise) accrued interest on, all the Securities which are to be redeemed on that date, other than Securities or portions of Securities called for redemption which are owned by the Company or a Subsidiary and have been delivered by the Company or such Subsidiary to the Trustee for cancellation. All money, if any, earned on funds held by the Paying Agent shall be remitted to the Company. In addition, the Paying Agent shall promptly return to the Company any money deposited with the Paying Agent by the Company in excess of the amounts necessary to pay the Redemption Price of, and accrued interest, if any, on, all Securities to be redeemed.

If any Security called for redemption is converted, any money deposited with the Trustee or with any Paying Agent or so segregated and held in trust for the redemption of such Security shall (subject to any right of the Holder of such Security or any Predecessor Security to receive interest as provided in the last paragraph of Section 3.07 or in the terms of such Security) be paid to the Company upon Company Request or, if then held by the Company, shall be discharged from such trust.

 

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Section 11.06 Securities Payable on Redemption Date.

Notice of redemption having been given as aforesaid, the Securities so to be redeemed shall, on the Redemption Date, become due and payable at the Redemption Price therein specified, and from and after such date (unless the Company shall default in the payment of the Redemption Price and accrued interest) such Securities shall cease to bear interest. Upon surrender of any such Security for redemption in accordance with said notice, such Security shall be paid by the Company at the Redemption Price, together, if applicable, with accrued interest to the Redemption Date; provided, however, that, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.01, installments of interest whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities, or one or more Predecessor Securities, registered as such at the close of business on the relevant Record Dates according to their terms and the provisions of Section 3.07; provided further that, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.01, if the Redemption Date is after a Regular Record Date and on or prior to the Interest Payment Date, the accrued and unpaid interest shall be payable to the Holder of the redeemed Securities registered on the relevant Regular Record Date.

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal and any premium shall, until paid, bear interest from the Redemption Date at the rate prescribed therefor in the Security.

Section 11.07 Securities Redeemed in Part.

Any Security which is to be redeemed only in part shall be surrendered at a Place of Payment therefor (with, if the Company or the Trustee so requires, due endorsement by, or a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder thereof or such Holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing), and the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to the Holder of such Security without service charge, a new Security or Securities of the same series and of like tenor, of any authorized denomination as requested by such Holder, in aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for the unredeemed portion of the principal of the Security so surrendered.

ARTICLE XII. SINKING FUNDS

Section 12.01 Applicability of Article.

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of any series except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for such Securities.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of any series of Securities is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of such Securities is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of any series of Securities, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 12.02. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of the series as provided for by the terms of such Securities.

Section 12.02 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company (a) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any previously called for redemption) and (b) may apply as a credit Securities of a series which have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to any Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as and to the extent provided for by the terms of such Securities; provided that the Securities to be so credited have not been previously so credited. The Securities to be so credited shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the Redemption Price, as specified in the Securities so to be redeemed, for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

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Section 12.03. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 45 days (or shorter period as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for such Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities pursuant to Section 12.02 and will also deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days prior to each such sinking fund payment date, the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 11.03 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 11.04. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 11.06 and 11.07.

ARTICLE XIII. DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

Section 13.01 Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

The Company may elect, at its option at any time, to have Section 13.02 or Section 13.03 apply to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, designated pursuant to Section 3.01 as being defeasible pursuant to such Section 13.02 or 13.03, in accordance with any applicable requirements provided pursuant to Section 3.01 and upon compliance with the conditions set forth below in this Article. Any such election shall be evidenced by a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or in another manner specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 for such Securities.

Section 13.02 Defeasance and Discharge.

Upon the Company’s exercise of its option (if any) to have this Section apply to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall be deemed to have been discharged from its obligations with respect to such Securities as provided in this Section on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 13.04 are satisfied (hereinafter called Defeasance). For this purpose, such Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by such Securities and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), subject to the following which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (a) the rights of Holders of such Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 13.04 and as more fully set forth in Section 13.05, payments in respect of the principal of and any premium and interest on such Securities when payments are due, (b) the Company’s obligations with respect to such Securities under Sections 3.04, 3.05, 3.06, 10.02 and 10.03, (c) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and (d) this Article. Subject to compliance with this Article, the Company may exercise its option (if any) to have this Section applied to any Securities notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option (if any) to have Section 13.03 applied to such Securities.

Section 13.03 Covenant Defeasance.

Upon the Company’s exercise of its option (if any) to have this Section applied to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, (a) the Company shall be released from its obligations under Sections 7.04, 8.01, 10.04, 10.05 and any covenants provided pursuant to Section 3.01(u), 9.01(b) or 9.01(g) for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities and (b) the occurrence of any event specified in Section 5.01(d) or 5.01(g) shall be deemed not to be or result in an Event of Default, in each case with respect to such Securities as provided in this Section on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 13.04 are satisfied (hereinafter called Covenant Defeasance). For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to such Securities, the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such specified Section, whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such Section or by reason of any reference in any such Section to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities shall be unaffected thereby.

 

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Section 13.04 Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

The following shall be the conditions to the application of Section 13.02 or 13.03 to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be:

(a) The Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee which satisfies the requirements contemplated by Section 6.09 and agrees to comply with the provisions of this Article applicable to it) as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefits of the Holders of such Securities, (A) money in an amount, or (B) in the case of any series of Securities the payment on which may only be made in legal coin or currency of the United States, U.S. Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than Noon, New York City time, on the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) such other obligations or arrangements as may be specified as contemplated by Section 3.01 with respect to such Securities, or (D) a combination thereof, in each case sufficient, in the opinion of an independent public accountant or financial advisor, in either case expressed in a written certification thereof to be delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or any such other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, (1) the principal of and any premium and interest on such Securities on the respective Stated Maturities, in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and such Securities or any Redemption Date established pursuant to Clause (i) below, and (2) any mandatory sinking fund payments on the dates on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and such Securities. As used herein, “U.S. Government Obligation” means (x) any security which is (i) a direct obligation of the United States of America for the payment of which the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged or (ii) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, which, in either case (i) or (ii), is not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof and (y) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act) as custodian with respect to any U.S. Government Obligation which is specified in Clause (x) above and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any U.S. Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

(b) In the event of an election to have Section 13.02 apply to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, Defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, Defeasance and discharge were not to occur.

(c) In the event of an election to have Section 13.03 apply to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel that shall confirm that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur.

(d) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that neither such Securities nor any other Securities of the same series, if then listed on any securities exchange, will be delisted as a result of such deposit.

 

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(e) No event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing at the time of such deposit (other than such event or Event of Default (if any) resulting from the incurrence of indebtedness or the grant of liens securing such indebtedness, all or a portion of the proceeds of which will be applied to such deposit) or, with regard to any such event specified in Sections 5.01(e) and (f), at any time on or prior to the 90th day after the date of such deposit (it being understood that this condition shall not be deemed satisfied until after such 90th day).

(f) Such deposit shall not result in a breach of, or constitute a default under, any material agreement or instrument (other than this Indenture) to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound, or if such breach or default would occur, which is not waived as of, and for all purposes, on and after, the date of such deposit.

(g) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent with respect to such Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance have been complied with (in each case, subject to the satisfaction of the condition in Clause (e)).

Before or after a deposit, the Company may make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the redemption of Securities at a future date in accordance with Article XI.

Section 13.05 Deposited Money and U.S. Government Obligations to Be Held in Trust; Miscellaneous Provisions.

Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 10.03, all money and U.S. Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee or other qualifying trustee (solely for purposes of this Section and Section 13.06, the Trustee and any such other trustee are referred to collectively as the “Trustee”) pursuant to Section 13.04 in respect of any Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any such Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities, of all sums, due and to become due thereon in respect of principal and any premium and interest, but money so held in trust need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 13.04 or the principal and interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of Outstanding Securities; provided that the Trustee shall be entitled to charge any such tax, fee or other charge to such Holder’s account.

Anything in this Article to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money or U.S. Government Obligations held by it as provided in Section 13.04 with respect to any Securities which are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect the Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, with respect to such Securities.

Section 13.06 Reinstatement.

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money in accordance with this Article with respect to any Securities by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, then the obligations under this Indenture, such Securities from which the Company has been discharged or released pursuant to Section 13.02 or 13.03 shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this Article with respect to such Securities, until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all money held in trust pursuant to Section 13.05 with respect to such Securities in accordance with this Article; provided, however, that (a) if the Company makes any payment of principal of or any premium or interest on any such Security following such reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights (if any) of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money so held in trust and (b) unless otherwise required by any legal proceeding or any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority, the Trustee or Paying Agent shall return all such money and U.S. Government Obligations to the Company promptly after receiving a written request therefor at any time, if such reinstatement of the Company’s obligations has occurred and continues to be in effect.

[signature pages follow]

 

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This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, and by each party hereto on separate counterparts, each of which so executed shall be deemed to be an original, but all such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

MADRIGAL PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

By:                               

Name:

 

                             

Title:

 

                             

[                                               ], as Trustee

By:                               

Name:

 

                             

Title:

 

                             

 

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EX-5.1

EXHIBIT 5.1

 

LOGO

     

Hogan Lovells US LLP

555 Thirteenth Street, NW

Washington, D.C. 20004

T +1 202 637 5600

F +1 202 637 5910

www.hoganlovells.com

  

June 1, 2021

Board of Directors

Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Four Tower Bridge

200 Barr Harbor Drive, Suite 200

West Conshohocken, PA 19428

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We are acting as counsel to Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with its automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3ASR (the “Registration Statement”), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on the date hereof, relating to the proposed public offering of one or more series of the following securities of the Company: (i) shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Common Shares”); (ii) shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Preferred Shares”); (iii) warrants to purchase Common Shares and/or Preferred Shares (the “Warrants”); (iv) debt securities, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt (the “Debt Securities”); and (v) units consisting of any combination of the foregoing (the “Units” and, together with the Common Shares, the Preferred Shares, the Warrants and the Debt Securities, the “Securities”), all of which may be sold from time to time and on a delayed or continuous basis, as set forth in the prospectus which forms a part of the Registration Statement, and as to be set forth in one or more supplements to the prospectus.

This opinion letter is furnished to you at your request to enable you to fulfill the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K, 17 C.F.R. § 229.601(b)(5), in connection with the filing of the Registration Statement.

For purposes of this opinion letter, we have examined copies of such agreements, instruments and documents as we have deemed an appropriate basis on which to render the opinions hereinafter expressed. In our examination of the aforesaid documents, we have assumed the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity of all natural persons, the accuracy and completeness of all documents submitted to us, the authenticity of all original documents, and the conformity to authentic original documents of all documents submitted to us as copies (including pdfs). As to all matters of fact, we have relied on the representations and statements of fact made in the documents so reviewed, and we have not independently established the facts so relied on. This opinion letter is given, and all statements herein are made, in the context of the foregoing.

For purposes of this opinion letter, we have assumed that (i) the issuance, sale, amount and terms of any Securities of the Company to be offered from time to time will have been duly authorized and established by proper action of the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee of such board (“Board Action”) consistent with the procedures and terms described in the Registration Statement and in accordance with the Company’s charter and bylaws and

 

Hogan Lovells US LLP is a limited liability partnership registered in the District of Columbia. “Hogan Lovells” is an international legal practice that includes Hogan Lovells US LLP and Hogan Lovells International LLP, with offices in: Alicante Amsterdam Baltimore Beijing Birmingham Boston Brussels Colorado Springs Denver Dubai Dusseldorf Frankfurt Hamburg Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City Hong Kong Houston Johannesburg London Los Angeles Luxembourg Madrid Mexico City Miami Milan Minneapolis Monterrey Moscow Munich New York Northern Virginia Paris Perth Philadelphia Rome San Francisco São Paulo Shanghai Silicon Valley Singapore Sydney Tokyo Warsaw Washington, D.C. Associated Offices: Budapest Jakarta Riyadh Shanghai FTZ Ulaanbaatar Zagreb. Business Service Centers: Johannesburg Louisville. Legal Services Center: Berlin. For more information see www.hoganlovells.com


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applicable Delaware corporate law, in a manner that does not violate any law, government or court-imposed order or restriction or agreement or instrument then binding on the Company or otherwise impair the legal or binding nature of the obligations represented by the applicable Securities; (ii) at the time of offer, issuance and sale of any Securities, the Registration Statement will have been declared effective under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), and no stop order suspending its effectiveness will have been issued and remain in effect; (iii) any Debt Securities will be issued pursuant to an indenture substantially in the form of such indenture filed as Exhibit 4.10 to the Registration Statement, with items shown in such exhibit as subject to completion completed in a satisfactory manner; (iv) the indenture under which any Debt Securities are issued will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended; (v) any Warrants will be issued under one or more warrant agreements, each to be between the Company and a financial institution identified therein as a warrant agent; (vi) prior to any issuance of Preferred Shares, appropriate amendments to the articles of incorporation will be accepted for record by the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware; (vii) the Securities will be delivered against payment of valid consideration therefor and in accordance with the terms of the applicable Board Action authorizing such sale and any applicable underwriting agreement or purchase agreement and as contemplated by the Registration Statement and/or the applicable prospectus supplement; and (viii) the Company will remain a Delaware corporation.

To the extent that the obligations of the Company with respect to the Securities may be dependent upon such matters, we assume for purposes of this opinion that the other party under the indenture for any Debt Securities, under the warrant agreement for any Warrants and under the unit agreement for any Units, namely, the trustee, the warrant agent or the unit agent, respectively, is duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization; that such other party is duly qualified to engage in the activities contemplated by such indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, as applicable; that such indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, as applicable, has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the other party and constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the other party enforceable against the other party in accordance with its terms; that such other party is in compliance with respect to performance of its obligations under such indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, as applicable, with all applicable laws, rules and regulations; and that such other party has the requisite organizational and legal power and authority to perform its obligations under such indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, as applicable.

This opinion letter is based as to matters of law solely on the applicable provisions of the following, as currently in effect: (i) the Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended, and (ii) as to the opinions given in paragraphs, (d) and (e), the laws of the State of New York (but not including any laws, statutes, ordinances, administrative decisions, rules or regulations of any political subdivision below the state level). We express no opinion herein as to any other statutes, rules or regulations (and in particular, we express no opinion as to any effect that such other statutes, rules or regulations may have on the opinions expressed herein). As used herein, the term “Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended” includes the statutory provisions contained therein, all applicable provisions of the Delaware Constitution and reported judicial decisions interpreting these laws.


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Based upon, subject to and limited by the foregoing, we are of the opinion that:

(a) The Common Shares (including any Common Shares duly issued as part of any Units or upon the exchange or conversion of Debt Securities or Preferred Shares that are exchangeable for or convertible into Common Shares or upon the exercise of Warrants and receipt by the Company of any additional consideration payable upon such conversion, exchange or exercise), upon due execution and delivery on behalf of the Company of certificates for Common Shares, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

(b) The Preferred Shares (including any Preferred Shares duly issued as part of any Units or upon the exercise of Warrants and receipt by the Company of any additional consideration payable upon such exercise), upon due execution and delivery on behalf of the Company of certificates therefor, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

(c) The Warrants, upon due execution and delivery of a warrant agreement relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the warrant agent named therein and due authentication of the Warrants by such warrant agent, and upon due execution and delivery of the Warrants on behalf of the Company, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

(d) The Debt Securities (including any Debt Securities duly issued as part of any Units or upon the exercise of Warrants), upon due execution and delivery of an indenture relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the trustee named therein, and upon authentication by such trustee and due execution and delivery on behalf of the Company in accordance with the indenture and any supplemental indenture relating thereto, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

(e) The Units, upon due execution and delivery of a unit agreement relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the unit agent named therein, upon due authentication of the Units by such unit agent and upon due execution and delivery of the underlying Securities that are components of the Units in accordance with the applicable unit agreement and the applicable indenture (in the case of underlying Debt Securities), certificates of designation (in the case of underlying Preferred Shares), or warrant agreement (in the case of underlying Warrants), will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

The opinions expressed in Paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) above with respect to the valid and binding nature of obligations may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, receivership, moratorium or other laws affecting creditors’ rights (including, without limitation, the effect of statutory and other law regarding fraudulent conveyances, fraudulent transfers and preferential transfers) and by the exercise of judicial discretion and the application of principles of equity, good faith, fair dealing, reasonableness, conscionability and materiality (regardless of whether the Securities are considered in a proceeding in equity or at law).

This opinion letter has been prepared for use in connection with the filing by the Company of the Registration Statement on the date hereof. We assume no obligation to advise of any changes in the foregoing subsequent to the delivery of this letter.


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We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion letter as Exhibit 5.1 to the Registration Statement filed on the date hereof and to the reference to this firm under the caption “Legal Matters” in the prospectus constituting a part of the Registration Statement. In giving this consent, we do not thereby admit that we are an “expert” within the meaning of the Act.

Very truly yours,

/s/ HOGAN LOVELLS US LLP

Hogan Lovells US LLP

EX-23.2

EXHIBIT 23.2

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We hereby consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc. of our report dated February 25, 2021 relating to the financial statements and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, which appears in Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. We also consent to the reference to us under the heading “Experts” in such Registration Statement.

/s/PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Philadelphia, PA

June 1, 2021